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IACM-Bulletin of 08 January 2017

Science/Animal: An increased intake of olive oil in mice increased the number of CB2 receptors

A diet enriched with olive oil significantly increased the number of CB2 receptors in fat tissue of mice and reduced inflammation and proliferation of mice adipose tissue. This is the result of research at the National Institute for Digestive Diseases "S. de Bellis" in Bari, Italy, published in the Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. Mice received either a standard diet with soybean oil or one of three other diets enriched with three different oils, one in which soybean oil was replaced with olive oil, one in which it was replaced with salmon oil, and the third in which it was replaced with evening primrose oil.

The cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2 receptor) is known for its anti-obesity effects, anti-inflammatory effects as well as anti-cancer effects. Authors wrote that “the present findings open opportunities for developing novel nutritional strategies considering olive oil a key ingredient of a healthy dietary pattern.”

Notarnicola M, Tutino V, Tafaro A, Bianco G, Guglielmi E, Caruso MG. Dietary olive oil induces cannabinoid CB2 receptor expression in adipose tissue of Apc(Min/+) transgenic mice. Nutr Healthy Aging. 2016;4(1):73-80.

News in brief

IACM: New articles in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
The following new articles have been published in the journal Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research:
* Wang Mei, et al. Decarboxylation Study of Acidic Cannabinoids: A Novel Approach Using Ultra-High-Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography/Photodiode Array-Mass Spectrometry. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. 2016, 1(1): 262-271. Authors found that at temperatures lower than 100°C, decarboxylation of THCA did not reach completion within 60 min. At higher temperatures THCA was completely decarboxylated after 30, 9, and 6 min at 110°C, 130°C, and 145°C, respectively.
* Bonn-Miller Marcel O, et al. Preliminary Development of a Brief Cannabis Use Disorder Screening Tool: The Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test Short-Form. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. 2016, 1(1): 252-261.

USA: The Governor of Maine signs the law on cannabis legalization
Maine Governor Paul LePage said he had signed a measure legalizing the recreational usage of cannabis in his state after voters approved the measure in November 2016. With the signature, the state becomes the ninth to legalize recreational use of the drug.
Reuters of 3 January 2017

Australia: The number of people supporting legalization of cannabis is higher than the number opposing it
For the first time, more Australians are supporting cannabis legalisation than those who still want it to be classified as an illicit drug. In 2013, 44% of those surveyed stated that cannabis should remain illegal and 34% supported its legalisation. In 2016, this has changed with 43% supporting legalisation and 32% supporting cannabis prohibition. The remainder was undecided.
International Business Times of 27 December 2016

Science/Human: Topical application of a cannabis extract helpful in cancer wound in a case report
The case of a 44-year old man with squamous cell cancer of his right cheek, which resulted in an open wound, was presented. The pain was first treated with inhaled cannabis and thereafter topically with a cannabis extract in sunflower oil. Four times daily he applied and digitally spread 1-2 ml to the entire wound. He experienced pain relief within 10–15 minutes after application, which lasted for up to two hours. In addition, the size of his malignant wound decreased by about 5% within four weeks.
University of Toronto, Canada.
Maida V. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2017;53(1):e4-e6.

Science/Human: Cannabis use does not increase the risk of stroke in young people, while tobacco does
In a study with 49,321 Swedish men, born between 1949 and 1951, who were conscripted into compulsory military service between the ages of 18 and 20, there was no increased risk of stroke for cannabis users, but a fivefold increase of stroke for those, who smoked more than 20 tobacco cigarettes a day.
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Falkstedt D, et al. Stroke. 2016 Dec 27. [in press]

USA: One day left to sign a petition to the White House
There is one day left to sign the petition by Patients Out of Time to the White House calling for the immediate re-scheduling of cannabis. It can be signed until 9 January here.

Science/Animal: Continued co-administration of THC and CBD caused certain brain changes
Scientists investigated the effects of long-term co-administration of CBD and THC in rodents. They found changes in certain brain regions (nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area), which “suggest that while CBD may have protective effects acutely, its long-term molecular actions on the brain are more complex and may be supradditive.”
Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, Australia.
Todd SM, et al. EUR Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016 Dec 30. [in press]

Science/Animal: Endocannabinoids protect brain cells from the consequences of reduced blood supply
Inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation by an inhibitor of FAAH (fatty acid amide hydrolase) mitigates damage to the nerve cells and cognitive deterioration caused by reduced blood supply to the brain.
Tong Ji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
Wang D, et al. Neuroscience. 2016 Dec 29. [in press]

Science/Cells: Activation of the CB2 receptor counteracts inflammation of nerve cells
In white blood cells (certain T lymphocytes) of normal healthy subjects and patients with multiple sclerosis scientists demonstrated that the activation of the CB2 receptor by a synthetic cannabinoid (COR167) caused reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5).
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Italy.
Annunziata P, et al. J Neuroimmunol. 2016 Dec 23. [in press]

Science/Animal: A spider derived peptide exerts pain inhibition by activation of the CB1 receptor and opioid receptors
The peptide PnPP-19 of the spider Brazilian wandering spider (phoneutria nigriventer) reduces pain involving the activation of CB1 cannabinoid, mu- and delta-opioid receptors.
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
da Fonseca Pacheco D, et al. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 2016;22:34.

Science/Human: Mixed consequences of cannabis legalization on cannabis use by adolescents
In Washington general legalization of cannabis use resulted in increased use by adolescents, while legalization in Colorado did not exhibit any differential change in past-month adolescent cannabis use.
University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, USA.
Cerdá M, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Dec 27. [in press]

Science/Cells: Beta-caryophyllene promotes the function of osteoblasts
Beta-caryophyllene is known to activate the CB2 receptor. In osteoblasts, bone-forming cells, this essential oil promotes the formation of a mineralized extracellular matrix, and thus the formation of bone and the maintenance of normal bone mass.
Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, China.
Shan J, et al. IUBMB Life. 2017;69(1):22-29.

Science/Cells: Stem cells, which are treated with CBD, may be more beneficial for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease
Mesenchymal stem cells have emerged as a promising tool for the treatment of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. A study shows that pre-treatment of these cells with CBD (cannabidiol) “possess a molecular profile that might be more beneficial for the treatment” of Alzheimer’s disease.
IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo", Messina, Italy.
Libro R, et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Dec 23;18(1).

Science/Cells: High concentrations of CBD induce programmed cell death in healthy white blood cells
CBD given to certain white blood cells (monocytes) impairs function of the mitochondria, which was associated by increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and increased apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death.
Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Greifswald, Germany.
Schultze N, et al. Toxicology. 2016 Dec 21. [in press]

Science/Animal: CBD protects nerve cells in case of reduced blood supply
In a study with rats administration of CBD after a period of reduced blood supply to the brain improved neurological function, reduced loss of brain cells and inflammation of the brain.
School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
Ceprián M, et al. Neuropharmacology. 2016 Dec 21. [in press]

Science/Animal: Opioids and CB2 receptor agonists act synergistically in reducing pain
The addition of a CB2 receptor agonist to morphine for the treatment of pain in rodents reduced the necessary morphine dose and associated side effects. Authors suggest a combinatorial pain therapy for clinical trials.
College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, USA.
Grenald SA, et al. Neuropharmacology. 2016;116:59-70.

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