Studien und Fallberichte

Stand: 1. Oktober 2011

 

Sie finden wissenschaftliche Informationen zu den meisten Studien in englisch unter Database on Clinical Studies and Case Reports

 

·        Verbesserung der Symptome bzw. positiver Tenor der Autoren

o   Keine revelante Veränderung der Symptome bzw. negativer Tenor der Autoren

v  Verschlechterung der Symptome

 

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Übelkeit und Erbrechen - Krebschemotherapie. 3

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Strahlentherapie. 6

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Metastasen. 6

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Postoperativ. 6

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – HIV/Aids. 6

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Hepatitis-C-Therapie. 7

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Schwangerschaft 7

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Bewegungskrankheit 7

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Andere. 7

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Gesunde. 7

Appetitsteigerung – HIV/Aids. 8

Appetitsteigerung – Krebs. 9

Appetitsteigerung - Alzheimer-Krankheit 10

Appetitsteigerung – Geriatrie. 10

Appetitsteigerung - Anorexia nervosa. 10

Appetitsteigerung – COPD.. 10

Appetitsteigerung – Gesunde. 10

Spastik – Multiple Sklerose. 11

Spastik – Querschnittslähmung. 12

Spastik – Verschiedene Ursachen. 13

Schmerz – Chronisch, neuropathisch/Multiple Sklerose. 14

Schmerz – Chronisch, Krebs. 16

Schmerz – Rheumatisch. 17

Schmerz - Fibromyalgie. 17

Schmerz – Chronisch. 17

Schmerz – Akut, postoperativ. 18

Schmerz – Akut, Gesunde. 19

Kopfschmerzen/Migräne. 20

Amyotrophe Lateralsklerose. 20

Dysfunktion der Harnblase. 20

Gastro-Ösophagealer Reflux. 21

Reizdarm, Diarrhoe. 21

Morbus Crohn. 21

Colitis ulcerosa. 21

Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde. 22

Tremor. 22

Dystonien. 22

L-Dopa-induzierte Dyskinesie (Tardive Dyskinesie) 22

Schluckauf (Singultus) 23

Tourette-Syndrom, Tics. 23

Hyperkinetische Bewegungsstörung. 23

Aufmerksamkeits-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung. 24

Zwangsstörungen. 24

Trichotillomanie. 24

Morbus Parkinson. 24

Chorea Huntington. 25

Traumatische Hirnschädigung. 25

Tinnitus. 25

Juckreiz. 25

Nachtschweiß. 26

Epilepsie. 26

Isaacs-Syndrom.. 26

Augeninnendrucksenkung - Glaukom.. 27

Augeninnendrucksenkung - Gesunde. 27

Nachtsichtigkeit 28

Asthma. 28

Bronchienerweiterung - Gesunde. 29

COPD (Chronisch-obstructive Lungenerkrankung) 29

Blutdruck/Bluthochdruck. 29

Krebs. 29

Alzheimer-Krankheit 30

Nervenschutz. 30

Schizophrene Psychose. 30

Manisch-depressive Psychose. 31

Depressionen. 31

Angst 31

Posttraumatische Stressstörung. 32

Alkoholabhängigkeit 32

Opiatabhängigkeit 32

Kokain-/Crackabhängigkeit 32

Cannabisabhängigkeit 33

Schlaf 33

Verschiedene Erkrankungen. 33

 


 

Übelkeit und Erbrechen - Krebschemotherapie

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Artim R, DiBella N. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) plus prochlorperazine (PCZ) for refractory nausea and vomiting (N/V). Proceedings of the American Society for Clinical Oncology 1983;2:84.

·        Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetics in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. Annals of Internal Medicine 1979;91:819-824.

o   Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I, Rosenberg SA.. A prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy. Cancer 1981; 47: 1746-1751.

·        Colls BM, Ferry DG, Gray AJ, Harvey VJ, McQueen EG. The antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. New Zealand Medical Journal 1980;91:449-451.

·        Ekert H, Waters KD, Jurk KH, Mobilia J, Loughnan P. Ameriloration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Medical Journal of Australia 1979;2:657-659.

·        Frytak S, Moertel CG, O'Fallon JR, Rubin J, Creagan ET, O'Connnell MJ. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetics for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo. Annals of Internal Medicine 1979;91:825-830.

·        Gralla RJ, Tyson LB, Bordin LA, Clark RA, Kelsen DP, Kris MG. Antiemetic therapy: a review of recent studies and a report of a random assignment trial comparing metoclopramide with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Cancer Treatment Report 1984;68:163-172.

·        Kluin-Nelemans JC, Nelemans FA, Meuwissen OJATh, Maes RAA. D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an antiemetic in patients treated with cancer chemotherapy; a double-blind cross-over trial against placebo. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 1979;21:338-340.

·        Lane M, Vogel CL, Ferguson J, Krasnow S, Saiers JL, Hamm J. Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1991;6:352-359.

·        Levitt M, Faiman C, Hawks R, Wilson A. Randomized double blind comparison of delta-9-tetrahydroicannabinol (THC) and marijuana as chemotherapy antiemetics. Proceedings of the American Society for Clinical Oncology 1984;3:91.

·        Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Faiman C, Kemel S, Krepart G. Dose vs response of tetrahydroannabinol (THC) vs prochlorperazine as chemotherapy antiemetics. Proceedings of the American Society for Clinical Oncology 1981;22:422.

·        McCabe M, Smith FP, Goldberg D, Macdonald J, Woolley PV, Warren R. Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy. Investigational New Drugs 1988;6:243-246.

·        Neidhart JA, Gagen MM, Wilson HE, Young DC. Comparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 1981; 21: 38-42S.

·        Orr LE, McKernan JF, Bloome B. Antiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis. Archives of Internal Medicine 1980;140:1431-433.

·        Sallan SE, Cronin C, Zelen M, Zinberg NE. Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer. A randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;302:135-138.

·        Sallan SE, Zinberg NE, Frei E. Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. New England Journal of Medicine 1975;293:795-797.

·        Ungerleider JT, Andrysiak T, Fairbanks L, Goodnight J, Sarna G, Jamison K. Cannabis and cancer chemotherapy. A comparison of oral delta-9-THC and prochlorperazine. Cancer 1982;50:636-645.

·        Ungerleider JT, Sarna G, Fairbanks LA, Goodnight J, Andrysiak T, Jamison K. THC or compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient - the UCLA study. Part II: patient drug preference. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 1985; 8: 142-147.

·        Meiri E, Jhangiani H, Vredenburgh JJ, Barbato LM, Carter FJ, Yang HM, Baranowski V. Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination with ondansetron versus ondansetron alone for delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Curr Med Res Opin 2007;23(3):533-43.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Levitt M, Faiman C, Hawks R, Wilson A. Randomized double blind comparison of delta-9-tetrahydroicannabinol (THC) and marijuana as chemotherapy antiemetics. Proceedings of the American Society for Clinical Oncology 1984;3:91.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

·        Duran M, Pérez E, Abanades S, Vidal X, Saura C, Majem M, Arriola E, Rabanal M, Pastor A, Farré M, Rams N, Laporte JR, Capellà D. Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2010;70(5):656-63.

Nabilon

·        Ahmedzai S, Carlyle DL, Clader IT, Moran F. Anti-emetic efficacy and toxicity of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in lung cancer chemotherapy. British Journal of Cancer 1983;48:657-663.

·        Chan HS, Correia JA, MacLeod SM. Nabilone versus prochlorperazine for control of cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in children: a double-blind, crossover trial. Pediatrics 1987; 79: 946-952

·        Crawford SM, Buckman R. Nabilone and metoclopramide in the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to cisplatinum: a double blind study. Medical Oncology and Tumor Pharmacotherapy 1986; 3: 39-42.

·        Cunningham D, Bradley CJ, Forrest GJ, Hutcheon AW, Adams L, Sneddon M, et al. A randomized trial of oral nabilone and prochlorperazine compared to intravenous metoclopramide and dexamethasone in the treatment of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy regimens containing cisplatin or cisplatin analogues. European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology 1988; 24: 685-689.

·        Dalzell AM, Bartlett H, Lilleyman JS. Nabilone: An alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1986;61:502-505.

·        Einhorn LH, Nagy C, Furnas B, Williams SD. Nabilone: an effective antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1981 Aug-Sep;21(8-9 Suppl):64S-69S.

·        George M, Pejovic MH, Thuaire M, Kramar A, Wolff JP. Randomized comparative trial of a new anti-emetic: nabilone, in cancer patients treated with cisplatin. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 1983; 37: 24-27.

·        Herman TS, Einhorn LH, Jones SE, Nagy C, Chester AB, Dean JC, et al. Superiority of nabilone over prochlorperazine as an antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. New England Journal of Medicine 1979; 300: 1295-1297.

·        Johansson R, Kilkku P, Groenroos M. A double-blind, controlled trial of nabilone vs prochlorperazine for refractory emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Treatment Reviews 1982; 9: 25-33.

·        Jones SE, Durant JR, Greco FA, Robertone A. A multi-institutional phase III study of nabilone vs placebo in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Cancer Treatment Reviews 1982; 9: 45-48

·        Levitt M. Nabilone vs placebo in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. Cancer Treatment Reviews 1982; 9(suppl B): 49-53.

·        Nagy CM, Furnas BE, Einhorn LH, Bond WH. Nabilone: antiemetic crossover study in cancer chemoptherapy patients. Proceedings of the American Society for Cancer Research 1978;19:30.

·        Niederle N, Schutte J, Schmidt CG. Crossover comparison of the antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and alizapride in patients with nonseminomatous testicular cancer receiving cisplatin therapy. Klinische Wochenschrift 1986; 64: 362-365.

·        Niiranen Aila, Mattson K. A cross-over comparison of nabilone and prochlorperazine for emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 1985;8:336-340.

·        Pomeroy M, Fennelly JJ, Towers M. Prospective randomized double-blind trial of nabilone versus domperidone in the treatment of cytotoxic-induced emesis. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 1986;17:285-288.

·        Priestman SG, Priestman TJ, Canney PA. A double-blind randomised cross-over comparison of nabilone and metoclopramide in the control of radiation-induced nausea. Clinical Radiology 1987; 38: 543-544.

·        Steele N, Gralla RJ, Braun Jr DW, Young CW. Double-blind comparison of the antiemetic effects of nabilone and prochlorperazine on chemotherapy-induced emesis. Cancer Treatment Report 1980; 64: 219-224.

·        Wada JK, Bogdon DL, Gunnell JC, Hum GJ, Gota CH, Rieth TE. Double-blind, randomized, crossover trial of nabilone vs. placebo in cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Treatment Reviews 1982; 9(Suppl B): 39-44

Levonantradol

·        Citron ML, Herman TS, Vreeland F, Krasnow SH, Fossieck BE, Jr. Antiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Cancer Treatment Reports 1985;69:109-112.

·        Higi M, Niederle N, Bremer K, Schmitt G, Schmidt CG, Seeber S. Levonantradol bei der Behandlung von zytostatika-bedingter Übelkeit und Erbrechen. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 1982; 107: 1232-1234.

·        Hutcheon AW, Palmer JB, Soukop M, Cunningham D, McArdle C, Welsh J, et al. A randomised multicentre single blind comparison of a cannabinoid anti-emetic (levonantradol) with ychlorpromazine in patients receiving their first cytotoxic chemotherapy. European Journal for Cancer and Clinical Oncology 1983; 19: 1087-1090

·        Stambaugh Jr JE, McAdams J, Vreeland F. Dose ranging evaluation of the antiemetic efficacy and toxicity of intramuscular levonantradol in cancer subjects with chemotherapy-induced emesis. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research1984; 24: 480-485

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Delta-8-THC

·        Abrahamov A, Abrahamov A, Mechoulam R. An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology. Life Sciences 1995;56:2097-2102.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Vinciguerra V, Moore T, Brennan E. Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy. New York State Journal of Medicine 1988;88:525-527.

·        Musty RE, Rossi R. Effects of smoked cannabis and oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on nausea and emesis after cancer chemotherapy: A review of state clinical trials. J Cannabis Ther 2001;1(1):29-42.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

·        Doblin RE, Kleiman MA. Marijuana as antiemetic medicine: a survey of oncologists' experiences and attitudes. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 1991; 9: 1314-1319.

o   Schwartz RH, Voth EA, Sheridan MJ. Marijuana to prevent nausea and vomiting in cancer patients: a survey of clinical oncologists. South Medical Journal 1997;90(2):167-72.

 

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Strahlentherapie

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Ungerleider JT, Andrysiak TA, Fairbanks LA, Tesler AS, Parker RG. Tetrahydrocannabinol vs. prochlorperazine. The effects of two antiemetics on patients undergoing radiotherapy. Radiology 1984;150(2):598-9.

Levonantradol

·        Lucraft HH, Palmer MK. Randomised clinical trial of levonantradol and chlorpromazine in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced vomiting. Clinical Radiology 1982; 33: 621-622.

 

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Metastasen

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Zutt M, Hanssle H, Emmert S, Neumann C, Kretschmer L. [Dronabinol for supportive therapy in patients with malignant melanoma and liver metastases] [Article in German]. Hautarzt 2006;57(5):423-7.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol

·        Gonzalez-Rosales F, Walsh D. Intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol). Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1997;14(5):311-314.

 

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Postoperativ

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Layeeque R, Siegel E, Kass R, Henry-Tillman RS, Colvert M, Mancino A, Klimberg VS. Prevention of nausea and vomiting following breast surgery. Am J Surg 2006;191(6):767-72.

Nabilon

·        Lewis IH, Campbell DN, Barrowcliffe MP. Effect of nabilone on nausea and vomiting after total abdominal hysterectomy. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1994; 73: 244-246.

 

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – HIV/Aids

Unkontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        de Jong BC, Prentiss D, McFarland W, Machekano R, Israelski DM. Marijuana use and its association with adherence to antiretroviral therapy among  HIV-infected persons with moderate to severe nausea. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005;38(1):43-6.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Woolridge E, Barton S, Samuel J, Osorio J, Dougherty A, Holdcroft A. Cannabis use in HIV for pain and other medical symptoms. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005;29(4):358-67.

·        Sidney S. Marijuana use in HIV-positive and AIDS patients: Results of a an anonymous mail survey. J Cannabis Ther 2001;1(3-4):35-43.

·        Corless IB, Lindgren T, Holzemer W, Robinson L, Moezzi S, Kirksey K, Coleman C, Tsai YF, Sanzero Eller L, Hamilton MJ, Sefcik EF, Canaval GE, Rivero Mendez M, Kemppainen JK, Bunch EH, Nicholas PK, Nokes KM, Dole P, Reynolds N. Marijuana Effectiveness as an HIV Self-Care Strategy. Clin Nurs Res 2009;18(2):172-93.

 

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Hepatitis-C-Therapie

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol, Nabilon

·        Costiniuk CT, Mills E, Cooper CL. Evaluation of oral cannabinoid-containing medications for the management of interferon and ribavirin-induced anorexia, nausea and weight loss in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C virus. Can J Gastroenterol 2008;22(4):376-80.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Sylvestre DL, Clements BJ, Malibu Y. Cannabis use improves retention and virological outcomes in patients treated for hepatitis C. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006;18(10):1057-63.

 

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Schwangerschaft

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Curry W-NL. Hyperemesis gravidarum and clinical cannabis: To eat or not to eat? J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(3-4):63-83.

·        Westfall RE, Janssen PA, Lucas P, Capler R. Survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against 'morning sickness'. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2006;12(1):27-33.

 

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Bewegungskrankheit

Unkontrollierte Studien

Parabolischer Flug (keine Substanz)

·        Choukèr A, Kaufmann I, Kreth S, Hauer D, Feuerecker M, Thieme D, Vogeser M, Thiel M, Schelling G.  Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.  PLoS One 2010;5(5):e10752.

 

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Andere

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol

·        Merriman AR, Oliak DA. Use of medical marijuana for treatment of severe intractable nausea after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: case report. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2008;4(4):550-1.

 

Übelkeit und Erbrechen – Gesunde

Kontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Soderpalm AH, Schuster A, de Wit H. Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior  2001;69(3-4):343-50.

 

Appetitsteigerung – HIV/Aids

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Beal JE, Olson R, Laubenstein L, Morales JP, Bellman P, Yangco B, Lefkowitz L, Plasse TF, Shepard KV. Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1995;10(2):89-97.

·        Timpone JG, Wright DJ, Li N, Egorin MJ, Enama ME, Mayers J, Galetto G, and the DATRI 004 Study Group. The safety and pharmacokinetics of single-agent and combination therapy with megestrol acetate and dronabinol for the treatment of HIV wasting syndrome. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 1997;13:305-315.

·        Abrams DI, Hilton JF, Leiser RJ, Shade SB, Elbeik TA, Aweeka FT, Benowitz NL, Bredt BM, Kosel B, Aberg JA, Deeks SG, Mitchell TF, Mulligan K, Bacchetti P, McCune JM, Schambelan M. Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med 2003;139(4):258-66.

·        Haney M, Rabkin J, Gunderson E, Foltin RW. Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV(+) marijuana smokers: acute effects on caloric intake and mood. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005;181(1):170-8.

·        Haney M, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Comer SD, Foltin RW. Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers. Caloric intake, mood, and sleep. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007;45(5):545-54.

·        Bedi G, Foltin RW, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Comer SD, Vosburg SK, Haney M. Efficacy and tolerability of high-dose dronabinol maintenance in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: a controlled laboratory study. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2010;212(4):675-86.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Haney M, Rabkin J, Gunderson E, Foltin RW. Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV(+) marijuana smokers: acute effects on caloric intake and mood. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005;181(1):170-8.

·        Haney M, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Comer SD, Foltin RW. Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers. Caloric intake, mood, and sleep. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2007;45(5):545-54.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Gorter R, Seefried M, Volberding P. Dronabinol effects on weight in patients with HIV infection. AIDS 1992;6:127.

·        Plasse TF, Gorter RW, Krasnow SH, Lane M, Shepard KV, Wadleigh RG. Recent clinical experience with dronabinol. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 1991;40:695-700.

·        Plasse T, Conant M, Gorter R, Shepard KV. Dronabinol stimulates appetite and causes weight gain in HIV patients. International Conference on AIDS 1992;8(3):122 (abstract no. PuB 7442).

·        Struwe M, Kaempfer SH, Geiger CJ, Pavia AT, Plasse TF, Shepard KV, Ries K, Evans TG. Effect of dronabinol on nutritional status in HIV infection. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 1993;27:827-831.

·        Beal JE, Olson R, Lefkowitz L, Laubenstein L, Bellman P, Yangco B, Morales JO, Murphy R, Powderly W, Plasse TF, Mosdell KW, Shepard KV. Long-term efficacy and safety of dronabinol for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated anorexia. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1997;14(1):7-14.

·        Dejesus E, Rodwick BM, Bowers D, Cohen CJ, Pearce D. Use of dronabinol improves appetite and reverses weight loss in HIV/AIDS-infected patients. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care 2007;6(2):95-100.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Prentiss D, Power R, Balmas G, Tzuang G, Israelski DM. Patterns of marijuana use among patients with HIV/AIDS followed in a public health care setting. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;35(1):38-45.

·        Woolridge E, Barton S, Samuel J, Osorio J, Dougherty A, Holdcroft A. Cannabis use in HIV for pain and other medical symptoms. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005;29(4):358-67.

·        Sidney S. Marijuana use in HIV-positive and AIDS patients: Results of a an anonymous mail survey. J Cannabis Ther 2001;1(3-4):35-43.

·        Corless IB, Lindgren T, Holzemer W, Robinson L, Moezzi S, Kirksey K, Coleman C, Tsai YF, Sanzero Eller L, Hamilton MJ, Sefcik EF, Canaval GE, Rivero Mendez M, Kemppainen JK, Bunch EH, Nicholas PK, Nokes KM, Dole P, Reynolds N. Marijuana Effectiveness as an HIV Self-Care Strategy. Clin Nurs Res 2009;18(2):172-93.

 

Appetitsteigerung – Krebs

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Jatoi A, Windschitl HE, Loprinzi CL, Sloan JA, Dakhil SR, Mailliard JA, Pundaleeka S, Kardinal CG, Fitch TR, Krook JE, Novotny PJ, Christensen B. Dronabinol versus megestrol acetate versus combination therapy for cancer-associated anorexia: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2002;20(2):567-573.

·        Regelson W, Butler JR, Schulz J, Kirk T, Peek L, Green ML, Zalis MO. Delta-9-tetrahydro­cannabi­nol as an effective antidepressant and appetite-stimulating agent in ad­vanced cancer pa­tients. In: Braude MC, Szara S, editors. Pharmacology of mari­hu­ana. Vol 2. New York: Ra­ven Press, 1976. p. 763-776.

·        Wadleigh R, Spaulding GM, Lumbersky B, Zimmer M, Shepard K, Plasse T. Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients. Proc Am Soc Oncology 1990; 9: 331.

o   Strasser F, Luftner D, Possinger K, Ernst G, Ruhstaller T, Meissner W, Ko YD, Schnelle M, Reif M, Cerny T. Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-in-Cachexia-Study-Group. J Clin Oncol 2006;24(21):3394-400.

·        Brisbois TD, de Kock IH, Watanabe SM, Mirhosseini M, Lamoureux DC, Chasen M, Macdonald N, Baracos VE, Wismer WV. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot  trial. Ann Oncol, 22. Februar 2011 [im Druck]

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

o   Strasser F, Luftner D, Possinger K, Ernst G, Ruhstaller T, Meissner W, Ko YD, Schnelle M, Reif M, Cerny T. Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-in-Cachexia-Study-Group. J Clin Oncol 2006;24(21):3394-400.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Plasse TF, Gorter RW, Krasnow SH, Lane M, Shepard KV, Wadleigh RG. Recent clinical experience with dronabinol. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 1991;40:695-700.

·        Nelson K, Walsh D, Deeter P, Sheehan F. A phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia. Journal of Palliative Care 1994;10:14-18.

·        Gottschling S. [Cannabinoids in children] [Article in German] Cannabinoide bei Kindern. Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin 2011;(1):55-57.

 

Appetitsteigerung - Alzheimer-Krankheit

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Volicer L, Stelly M, Morris J, McLaughlin J, Volicer BJ. Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 1997;12:913-919.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Patel S, Shua-Haim JR, Pass M. Safety and efficacy of dronabinol in the treatment of agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with anorexia: A retrospective chart review. Abstract, 11th International Conference of the IPA, 17-22 August 2003, Chicago.

 

Appetitsteigerung – Geriatrie

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Wilson MM, Philpot C, Morley JE. Anorexia of aging in long term care: is dronabinol an effective appetite stimulant? - a pilot study. J Nutr Health Aging 2007;11(2):195-8.

 

Appetitsteigerung - Anorexia nervosa

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

o   Gross H, Ebert MH, Faden VB, Goldberg SC, Kaye WH, Caine ED, Hawks R, Zinberg N. A double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1983;3(3):165-171.

 

Appetitsteigerung – COPD

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Bergmann K-C. [Dronabinol, a possible new therapeutic option in patients with COPD and pulmonal cachexia] [Article in German]. Abstract, 2005 Conference of the German Society for Pneumology, 17 March 2005, Berlin.

 

Appetitsteigerung – Gesunde

Kontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Foltin RW, Fishman MW, Brady JV. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 1986;25:577-582.

·        Foltin RW, Fischman MW, Byrne MF. Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight of humans living in a residential laboratory. Appetite 1988;11(1):1-14.

 

Spastik – Multiple Sklerose

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

o   Killestein J, Hoogervorst EL, Reif M, Kalkers NF, Van Loenen AC, Staats PG, Gorter RW, Uitdehaag BM, Polman CH. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabinoids in MS. Neurology 2002;58(9):1404-7.

·        Petro DJ, Ellenberger C. Treatment of human spasticity with D9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1981;(Suppl 21):413S-416S.

·        Ungerleider JT, Andyrsiak T, Fairbanks L, Ellison GW, Myers LW. D9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse 1987;7:39-50.

·        Zajicek J, Fox P, Sanders H, Wright D, Vickery J, Nunn A, Thompson A, on behalf of the UK MS Research Group. Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 362(9385): 1517-1526.

·        Zajicek JP, Sanders HP, Wright DE, Vickery PJ, Ingram WM, Reilly SM, Nunn AJ, Teare LJ, Fox PJ, Thompson AJ. Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005;76(12):1664-9.

Nabilon

·        Martyn CN, Illis LS, Thom J. Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Lancet 1995;345:579.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

·        Vaney C, Heinzel-Gutenbrunner M, Jobin P, Tschopp F, Gattlen B, Hagen U, Schnelle M, Reif M. Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard antiemetic therapy.Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Multiple Sclerosis 2004;10(4):417-24.

·        Wade DT, Makela P, Robson P, House H, Bateman C. Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Multiple Sclerosis 2004;10(4):434-41.

·        Zajicek J, Fox P, Sanders H, Wright D, Vickery J, Nunn A, Thompson A, on behalf of the UK MS Research Group. Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 362(9385): 1517-1526.

·        Zajicek JP, Sanders HP, Wright DE, Vickery PJ, Ingram WM, Reilly SM, Nunn AJ, Teare LJ, Fox PJ, Thompson AJ. Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005;76(12):1664-9.

·        Wade DT, Makela PM, House H, Bateman C, Robson P. Long-term use of a cannabis-based medicine in the treatment of spasticity and other symptoms in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2006;12(5):639-45.

·        Collin C, Ambler Z, Kent R, McCalla R. A randomised controlled study of Sativex® in patients with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. 22nd Congress of the ECTRIMS, 27-30 September 2006, Madrid, Spain.

·        Collin C, Davies P, Mutiboko IK, Ratcliffe S, for the Sativex Spasticity in MS Study Group. Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurology 2007;14(3):290–296.

·        Conte A, Bettolo CM, Onesti E, Frasca V, Iacovelli E, Gilio F, Giacomelli E, Gabriele M, Aragona M, Tomassini V, Pantano P, Pozzilli C, Inghilleri M. Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Eur J Pain 2009;13(5):472-7.

o   Centonze D, Mori F, Koch G, Buttari F, Codecà C, Rossi S, Cencioni MT, Bari M, Fiore S, Bernardi G, Battistini L, Maccarrone M. Lack of effect of cannabis-based treatment on clinical and laboratory measures in multiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci 2009;30(6):531-4.

·        Novotna A, Mares J, Ratcliffe S, Novakova I, Vachova M, Zapletalova O, Gasperini C, Pozzilli C, Cefaro L, Comi G, Rossi P, Ambler Z, Stelmasiak Z, Erdmann A, Montalban X, Klimek A, Davies P; the Sativex Spasticity Study Group. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, enriched-design study of nabiximols* (Sativex(®) ), as add-on therapy, in subjects with refractory spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol 2011;18(9):1122-1131.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Meinck HM, Schönle PWA, Conrad B. Effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology 1989;236:120-122.

v  Greenberg HS, Werness SAS, Pugh JE, Andrus RO, Anderson DJ, Domino EF. Short-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1994;55:324-328.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol

·        Deutsch SI, Rosse RB, Connor JM, Burket JA, Murphy ME, Fox FJ. Current status of cannabis treatment of multiple sclerosis with an illustrative case presentation of a patient with MS, complex vocal tics, paroxysmal dystonia, and marijuana dependence treated with dronabinol. CNS Spectr 2008;13(5):393-403.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Consroe P, Musty R, Rein J, Tillery W, Pertwee R. The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis. European Neurology 1997;38:44-48.

·        Page SA, Verhoef MJ, Stebbins RA, Metz LM, Levy JC. Cannabis use as described by people with multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci 2003;30(3):201-5.

·        Chong MS, Wolff K, Wise K, Tanton C, Winstock A, Silber E. Cannabis use in patients with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2006;12(5):646-51.

 

Spastik – Querschnittslähmung

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Hanigan WC, Destree R, Truong XT. The effect of D9-THC on human spasticity. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1986;39:198.

·        Maurer M, Henn V, Dittrich A, Hofmann A. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1990;240:1-4.

·        Hagenbach U, Luz S, Ghafoor N, Berger JM, Grotenhermen F, Brenneisen R, Mäder M. The treatment of spasticity with Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2007;45(8):551-62.

 

Kontrollierte Studien

Nabilon

·        Pooyania S, Ethans K, Szturm T, Casey A, Perry D. A randomized, double-blinded, crossover pilot study assessing the effect of nabilone on spasticity in persons with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91(5):703-7.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Kogel RW, Johnson PB, Chintam R, Robinson CJ, Nemchausky BA. Treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury with dronabinol, a tetrahydrocannabinol derivative. American Journal of Therapeutics 1995;2(10):799-805.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Malec J, Harvey RF, Cayner JJ. Cannabis effect on spasticity in spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1982;63:116-118.

·        Consroe P, Tillery W, Rein J, Musty RE. Reported Marijuana effects in patients with spinal cord injury. 1998 Symposium on the Cannabinoids. Burlington: International Cannabinoid Research Society, 1998, p. 64.

·        Dunn M, Davis R. The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males. Paraplegia 1974;12:175.

 

Spastik – Verschiedene Ursachen

Kontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

·        Wade DT, Robson P, House H, Makela P, Aram J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clinical Rehabilition 2003;17:18-26.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Brenneisen R, Egli A, Elsohly MA, Henn V, Spiess Y. The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1996;34:446-452.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol

·        Lorenz R. A casuistic rationale for the treatment of spastic and myocloni in a childhood neurodegenerative disease: neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis of the type Jansky-Bielschowsky. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2002;23(5-6):387-90.

·        Gottschling S. [Cannabinoids in children] [Article in German] Cannabinoide bei Kindern. Angewandte Schmerztherapie und Palliativmedizin 2011;(1):55-57.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Petro DJ. Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity. Psychosomatics 1980;21:81-85.

·        Randall RC, ed. Muscle Spasm, Pain & Marijuana Therapy. Washington, DC: Galen Press, 1991.

·        Schweizer A, Bircher HP. Reposition of a dislocated shoulder under use of cannabis. Wilderness Environ Med 2009;20(3):301-2.

 

Schmerz – Chronisch, neuropathisch/Multiple Sklerose

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Brenneisen R, Egli A, Elsohly MA, Henn V, Spiess Y. The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1996;34:446-452.

·        Maurer M, Henn V, Dittrich A, Hofmann A. Delta-9-THC shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double blind trial. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1990;240:1-4.

·        Wade DT, Robson P, House H, Makela P, Aram J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clinical Rehabilitation 2003;17:18-26.

·        Berman JS, Symonds C, Birch R. Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial. Pain 2004;112(3):299-306.

·        Svendsen KB, Jensen TS, Bach FW. Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial. BMJ 2004;329(7460):253.

o   Rintala DH, Fiess RN, Tan G, Holmes SA, Bruel BM. Effect of dronabinol on central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: a pilot study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2010;89(10):840-8.

Nabilon

·        Wissel J, Haydn T, Müller J, Brenneis C, Berger T, Poewe W, Schelosky LD. Low dose treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid Nabilone significantly reduces  spasticity-related pain : a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial. J Neurol 2006;253(10):1337-41.

o   Frank B, Serpell MG, Hughes J, Matthews JN, Kapur D. Comparison of analgesic effects and patient tolerability of nabilone and dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain: randomised, crossover, double blind  study. BMJ 2008;336(7637):199-201.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

·        Wade DT, Robson P, House H, Makela P, Aram J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clinical Rehabilitation 2003;17:18-26.

·        Berman J, Lee J, Cooper M, Cannon A, Sach J, McKerral S, Taggart M, Symonds C, Fishel K, Birch R. Efficacy of two cannabis-based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial. Anaesthesia, 2003;58:938.

·        Rog DJ, Nurmikko TJ, Friede T, Young CA. Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2005;65(6):812-9.

o   Ernst G, Denke C, Reif M, Schnelle M, Hagmeister H. Standardized cannabis extract in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study. IACM 3rd Conference on Cannabinoids in Medicine, 9-10 September 2005, Leiden, International Association for Cannabis as Medicine.

·        Nurmikko TJ, Serpell MG, Hoggart B, Toomey PJ, Morlion BJ, Haines D. Sativex successfully treats neuropathic pain characterised by allodynia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Pain 2007;133(1-3):210-20.

·        Selvarajah D, Gandhi R, Emery CJ, Tesfaye S. Randomised Placebo Controlled Double Blind Clinical Trial of Cannabis Based Medicinal Product (Sativex) in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: Depression is a Major Confounding Factor. Diabetes Care 2010;33(1):128-30.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Abrams DI, Jay CA, Shade SB, Vizoso H, Reda H, Press S, Kelly ME, Rowbotham MC, Petersen KL. Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 2007;68(7):515-21.

·        Wilsey B, Marcotte T, Tsodikov A, Millman J, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Fishman S. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of cannabis cigarettes in neuropathic pain. J Pain 2008;9(6):506-21.

·        Ellis RJ, Toperoff W, Vaida F, van den Brande G, Gonzales J, Gouaux B, Bentley H, Atkinson JH. Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 2009;34(3):672-680.

·        Ware MA, Wang T, Shapiro S, Robinson A, Ducruet T, Huynh T, Gamsa A, Bennett GJ,  Collet JP. Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 2010;182(14):E694-701.

Cannabidiol

o   Lindstrom P, Lindblom U, Boreus L. Lack of effect of cannabidiol in sustained neuropathia. Paper presented at '87 International Conference on Cannabis, Melbourne, September 2-4, 1987. Cited from: Consroe P, Sandyk R. Potential role of cannabinoids for therapy of neurological disorders. In: Murphy L, Bartke A, eds. Marijuana/Cannabinoids. Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1992:459-524.

CT-3 (Ajulemische Säure)

·        Karst M, Salim K, Burstein S, Conrad I, Hoy L, Schneider U. Analgesic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid CT-3 on chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;290(13):1757-62.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

o   Clermont-Gnamien S, Atlani S, Attal N, Le Mercier F, Guirimand F, Brasseur L. [The therapeutic use of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) in refractory neuropathic pain] [Article in French] Presse Med 2002;31(39 Pt 1):1840-5.

·        Finnegan-Ling D, Musty RE. Marinol and phantom limb pain; a case study. In: 1994 Symposium on the Cannabinoids. Burlington, Vermont: International Cannabinoid Research Society, p. 53.

o   Attal N, Brasseur L, Guirimand D, Clermond-Gnamien S, Atlami S, Bouhassira D. Are oral cannabinoids safe and effective in refractory neuropathic pain? Eur J Pain 2004;8:173–177.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

·        Rog DJ, Nurmikko TJ, Young CA. Oromucosal delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial. Clin Ther 2007;29(9):2068-79.

Nabilon (oral)

·        Toth C, Au S. A prospective identification of neuropathic pain in specific chronic polyneuropathy syndromes and response to pharmacological therapy. Pain 2008;138(3):657-66.

·        Bestard JA, Toth CC. An Open-Label Comparison of Nabilone and Gabapentin as Adjuvant Therapy or Monotherapy in the Management of Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Peripheral Neuropathy. Pain Pract 2011;11(4):353-68.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Dunn M, Davis R. The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males. Paraplegia 1974;12:175.

·        Consroe P, Musty R, Rein J, Tillery W, Pertwee R. The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis. European Neurology 1997;38:44-48.

·        Petro DJ. Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity. Psychosomatics 1980;21:81-85.

·        Page SA, Verhoef MJ, Stebbins RA, Metz LM, Levy JC. Cannabis use as described by people with multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci 2003;30(3):201-5.

·        Prentiss D, Power R, Balmas G, Tzuang G, Israelski DM. Patterns of marijuana use among patients with HIV/AIDS followed in a public health care setting. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;35(1):38-45.

·        Woolridge E, Barton S, Samuel J, Osorio J, Dougherty A, Holdcroft A. Cannabis use in HIV for pain and other medical symptoms. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005;29(4):358-67.

·        Chong MS, Wolff K, Wise K, Tanton C, Winstock A, Silber E. Cannabis use in patients with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2006;12(5):646-51.

 

Schmerz – Chronisch, Krebs

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Noyes R, Brunk SF, Baram DA, Canter A. Analgesic effects of delta-9-THC. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1975;15:139-143.

·        Noyes R, Brunk ST, Avery DH, Canter A. The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1975;18:84-89.

o   Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT. Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 2010;39(2):167-79.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

·        Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT. Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 2010;39(2):167-79.

Benzopyranoperidin

o   Jochimsen PR, Lawton RL, VerSteeg K, Noyes Jr R. Effect of benzopyranoperidine, a delta-9-THC congener, on pain. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1978;24:223-7.

NIB

·        Staquet M, Gantt C, Machin D. Effect of a nitrogen analog of tetrahydrocannabinol on cancer pain. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1978;23:397-401.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Butler JR  Peek LA  Regelson W  Moore MM  Lubin LA. Treatment effects of delta-9-THC in an advanced cancer population. In: Cohen S, Stillman RC, eds. The therapeutic potential of marihuana. Plenum Medical Book, New York 1976.

Nabilon

·        Maida V. The synthetic cannabinoid nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patients. Abstract of San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, 15 December 2006.

·        Maida V, Ennis M, Irani S, Corbo M, Dolzhykov M. Adjunctive nabilone in cancer pain and symptom management: a prospective observational study using propensity scoring. J Support Oncol 2008;6(3):119-24.

 

Schmerz – Rheumatisch

Kontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

·        Blake DR, Robson P, Ho M, Jubb RW, McCabe CS. Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2006;45(1):50-2.

 

Schmerz - Fibromyalgie

Kontrollierte Studien

Nabilon

·        Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethans K, Perry D. Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia. J Pain 2008;9(2):164-73.

·        Ware MA, Fitzcharles MA, Joseph L, Shir Y. The effects of nabilone on sleep in fibromyalgia: results of a randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg 2010;110(2):604-10.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Schley M, Legler A, Skopp G, Schmelz M, Konrad C, Rukwied R. Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief. Curr Med Res Opin 2006;22(7):1269-1276.

·        Fiz J, Durán M, Capellà D, Carbonell J, Farré M. Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life. PLoS One 2011;6(4):e18440.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Fiz J, Duran M, Langohr K, Capellà D, Farré M. Symptoms relief and improved mental health in fibromyalgia patients using cannabis. Results of an observational study. IACM 4th Conference on Cannabinoids in Medicine, 5-6 October 2007, Cologne, International Association for Cannabis as Medicine.

 

Schmerz – Chronisch

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Notcutt W, Price M, Miller R, Newport S, Phillips C, Simmons S, Sansom C. Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 'N of 1' studies. Anaesthesia 2004;59(5):440-52.

·        Narang S, Gibson D, Wasan AD, Ross EL, Michna E, Nedeljkovic SS, Jamison RN. Efficacy of dronabinol as an adjuvant treatment for chronic pain patients on opioid therapy. J Pain 2008;9(3):254-64.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

·        Holdcroft A, Smith M, Jacklin A, Hodgson H, Smith B, Newton M, Evans F. Pain relief with oral cannabinoids in familial Mediterranean fever. Anaesthesia 1997;52:483-488.

·        Notcutt W, Price M, Miller R, Newport S, Phillips C, Simmons S, Sansom C. Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 'N of 1' studies. Anaesthesia 2004;59(5):440-52.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Ware MA, Ducruet T, Robinson AR. Evaluation of herbal cannabis characteristics by medical users: a randomized trial. Harm Reduct J 2006;3(1):32

Nabilon

·        Pinsger M, Schimetta W, Volc D, Hiermann E, Riederer F, Polz W. [Benefits of an add-on treatment with the synthetic cannabinomimetic nabilone on patients with chronic pain - a randomized controlled trial.] [Artikel in deutsch] Wien Klin Wochenschr 2006;118(11-12):327-35.

N-Palmitoylethanolamin (örtlich)

·        Phan NQ, Siepmann D, Gralow I, Ständer S. Adjuvant topical therapy with a cannabinoid receptor agonist in facial postherpetic neuralgia. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2010;8(2):88-91.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

·        Haroutiunian S, Rosen G, Shouval R, Davidson E. Open-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2008;22(3):213-7.

Nabilon

·        Hamann W, di Vadi PP. Analgesic effect of the cannabinoid analogue nabilone is not mediated by opioid receptors. Lancet 1999;353(9152):560.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol

·        Elsner F, Radbruch L, Sabatowski R. [Tetrahydrocannabinol for treatment of chronic pain] [Article in German]. Schmerz 2001;15(3):200-4.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Noyes R, Baram DA. Cannabis analgesia. Comprehensive Psychiatry 1974:15:531-535.

·        Ware MA, Doyle CR, Woods R, Lynch ME, Clark AJ. Cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain: results of a prospective survey. Pain 2003;102(1-2):211-216.

·        Lynch ME, Clark AJ. Cannabis reduces opioid dose in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 2003;25(6):496-8.

·        Howard J, Anie KA, Holdcroft A, Korn S, Davies SC. Cannabis use in sickle cell disease: a questionnaire study. Br J Haematol 2005;131(1):123-8.

·        Russo EB, Mathre ML, Byrne A, Velin R, Bach PJ, Sanchez-Ramos J, et al. Chronic cannabis use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An examination of benefits and adverse effects of legal clinical cannabis. J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(1):3-57.

·        Aggarwal SK, Carter GT, Sullivan MD, ZumBrunnen C, Morrill R, Mayer JD. Characteristics of patients with chronic pain accessing treatment with medical cannabis in Washington State. J Opioid Manag 2009;5(5):257-86.

 

Schmerz – Akut, postoperativ

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

o   Raft D, Gregg J, Ghia J, Harris L. Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain: psychological correlates of the analgesic response. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1977;21:26-33.

o   Buggy DJ, Toogood L, Maric S, Sharpe P, Lambert DG, Rowbotham DJ. Lack of analgesic efficacy of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in postoperative pain. Pain 2003;106(1-2):169-72.

o   Seeling W, Kneer L, Buchele B, Gschwend JE, Maier L, Nett C, Simmet T, Steffen P, Schneider M, Rockemann M. [(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and the opioid receptor agonist piritramide do not act synergistically in postoperative pain.] [Article in German]. Anaesthesist 2006;55(4):391-400.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

·        Holdcroft A, Maze M, Dore C, Tebbs S, Thompson S. A multicenter dose-escalation study of the analgesic and adverse effects of an oral cannabis extract (Cannador) for postoperative pain management. Anesthesiology 2006;104(5):1040-1046.

Nabilon

o   Beaulieu P. Effects of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, on postoperative pain. Can J Anaesth 2006;53(8):769-75.

Levonantradol

·        Jain AK, Ryan JR, McMahon FG, Smith G. Evaluation of intramuscular levonantradol and placebo in acute postoperative pain. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1981;21(suppl 8-9):S320-S326.

·        Kantor TG, Hopper M. A study of levonantradol, a cannabinol derivative, for analgesia in post operative pain. Pain 1981; (suppl): S37.

GW842166

o   Ostenfeld T, Price J, Albanese M, Bullman J, Guillard F, Meyer I, Leeson R, Costantin C, Ziviani L, Nocini PF, Milleri S. A randomized, controlled study to investigate the analgesic efficacy of single doses of the cannabinoid receptor-2 agonist GW842166, ibuprofen or placebo in patients with acute pain following third molar tooth extraction. Clin J Pain 2011;27(8):668-76.

 

Schmerz – Akut, Gesunde

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

o   Naef M, Curatolo M, Petersen-Felix S, Arendt-Nielsen L, Zbinden A, Brenneisen R. The analgesic effect of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), morphine, and a THC-morphine combination in healthy subjects under experimental pain conditions. Pain 2003;105(1-2):79-88.

·        Roberts JD, Gennings C, Shih M. Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine. Eur J Pharmacol 2006;530(1-2):54-8.

Nabilon

o   Redmond WJ, Goffaux P, Potvin S, Marchand S.  Analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of nabilone on experimental heat pain.  Curr Med Res Opin 2008;24(4):1017-24.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Greenwald MK, Stitzer ML Antinociceptive, subjective and behavioral effects of smoked marijuana in humans. Drug Alcohol Depend 2000;59(3):261-75.

·        Wallace M, Schulteis G, Atkinson JH, Wolfson T, Lazzaretto D, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Abramson I. Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 2007;107(5):785-796.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

·        Kraft B, Frickey NA, Kaufmann RM, Reif M, Frey R, Gustorff B, Kress HG. Lack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers. Anesthesiology 2008;109(1):101-10.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (geraucht)

o   Hill SY, Schwin R, Goodwin DW, Powell B. Marihuana and pain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1974;188:415-8.

o   Clark WC, Janal MN, Zeidenberg P, Nahas GG. Effects of moderate and high doses of marihuana on thermal pain: a sensory decision theory analysis. J Clin Pharmacol 1981;21(8-9 Suppl):299S-310S.

 

Kopfschmerzen/Migräne

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol

·        Raby WN, Modica PA, Wolintz RJ, Murtaugh K. Dronabinol reduces signs and symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a case report. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2006;22(1):68-75.

·        Robbins MS, Tarshish S, Solomon S, Grosberg BM. Cluster Attacks Responsive to Recreational Cannabis and Dronabinol. Headache 2009;49(6):914-6.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Raby WN, Modica PA, Wolintz RJ, Murtaugh K. Dronabinol reduces signs and symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a case report. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2006;22(1):68-75.

·        Robbins MS, Tarshish S, Solomon S, Grosberg BM. Cluster Attacks Responsive to Recreational Cannabis and Dronabinol. Headache 2009;49(6):914-6.

Cannabis (historisch)

·        Russo EB. Hemp for headache: An in-depth historical and scientific review of cannabis in migraine treatment. J Cannabis Ther 2001;1(2):21-92.

 

Amyotrophe Lateralsklerose

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

o   Weber M, Goldman B, Truniger S. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind crossover trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010;81(10):1135-40.

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Carter GT, Rosen BS. Marijuana in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2001;18(4):264-70.

·        Amtmann D, Weydt P, Johnson KL, Jensen MP, Carter GT. Survey of cannabis use in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 2004;21(2):95-104.

 

Dysfunktion der Harnblase

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Hagenbach U, Ghafoor N, Brenneisen R, Luz S, Mäder M. Clinical investigation of D-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an alternative therapy for overactive bladders in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients? Abstract, 2001 Congress on Cannabis and the Cannabinoids, International Association for Cannabis as Medicine, 25-27 October 2001, Cologne, Germany.

·        Freeman RM, Adekanmi O, Waterfield MR, Waterfield AE, Wright D, Zajicek J. The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis:  a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS). Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2006;17(6):636-41.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

·        Brady CM, DasGupta R, Dalton C, Wiseman OJ, Berkley KJ, Fowler CJ. An open-label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 2004;10(4):425-33.

·        de Ridder D, Constantinescu CS,Fowler C, Kavia R, Sarantis N. Randomised controlled study of cannabis-based medicine (Sativex®) in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis associated detrusor overactivity. 22nd Congress of the ECTRIMS, 27-30 September 2006, Madrid, Spain.

·        Freeman RM, Adekanmi O, Waterfield MR, Waterfield AE, Wright D, Zajicek J. The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis:  a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS). Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2006;17(6):636-41.

·        Kavia RB, De Ridder D, Constantinescu CS, Stott CG, Fowler CJ. Randomized controlled trial of Sativex to treat detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2010;16(11):1349-59.

 

Gastro-Ösophagealer Reflux

Kontrollierte Studien (Experimentell bei Gesunden)

Dronabinol

·        Beaumont H, Jensen J, Carlsson A, Ruth M, Lehmann A, Boeckxstaens GE. Effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans. Br J Pharmacol 2009;156(1):153-62.

 

Reizdarm, Diarrhoe

Kontrollierte Studien (experimentell bei Gesunden)

Dronabinol

·        Esfandyari T, Camilleri M, Busciglio I, Burton D, Baxter K, Zinsmeister AR. Effects of a cannabinoid receptor agonist on colonic motor and sensory functions  in humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007;293(1):G137-45.

o   Klooker TK, Leliefeld KE, Van Den Wijngaard RM, Boeckxstaens GE. The cannabinoid receptor agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol does not affect visceral sensitivity to rectal distension in healthy volunteers and IBS patients. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2011;23(1):30-5, e2.

·        Wong BS, Camilleri M, Busciglio I, Carlson P, Szarka LA, Burton D, Zinsmeister AR. Pharmacogenetic Trial of a Cannabinoid Agonist Shows Reduced Fasting Colonic Motility in Patients with Non-Constipated Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterology, 28. Juli 2011 [im Druck]

 

Morbus Crohn

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis

·        Lal S, Prasad N, Ryan M, Tangri S, Silverberg MS, Gordon A, Steinhart H. Cannabis use amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;23(10):891-6.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Cannabis

·        Naftali T, Lev LB, Yablekovitz D, Half E, Konikoff FM. Treatment of Crohn's disease with cannabis: an observational study. Isr Med Assoc J 2011;13(8):455-8.

 

Colitis ulcerosa

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis

·        Lal S, Prasad N, Ryan M, Tangri S, Silverberg MS, Gordon A, Steinhart H. Cannabis use amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;23(10):891-6.

 

Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (historisch)

·        Russo E. Cannabis treatments in obstetrics and gynecology: A historical review. J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(3-4):5-35.

 

Tremor

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Clifford DB. Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis. Annals of Neurology 1983;13:669-671.

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

o   Fox P, Bain PG, Glickman S, Carroll C, Zajicek J. The effect of cannabis on tremor in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2004;62(7):1105-9.

 

Dystonien

Unkontrollierte Studien

Nabilon

o   Fox SH, Kellett M, Moore AP, Crossman AR, Brotchie JM. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the potential of cannabinoid receptor stimulation in the treatment of dystonia. Movement Disorders 2002;17(1):145-149.

Cannabidiol

·        Snider SR, Consroe P. Treatment of Meige's syndrome with cannabidiol. Neurology 1984;34(Suppl):147.

·        Sandyk R, Snider SR, Consroe P, Elias SM. Cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders. Psychiatry Research 1986;18:291.

·        Consroe P, Sandyk R, Snider SR. Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders. International Journal of Neuroscience 1986;30:277-282.

 

L-Dopa-induzierte Dyskinesie (Tardive Dyskinesie)

Kontrollierte Studien

Nabilon

·        Sieradzan KA, Fox SH, Dick J, Brotchie JM. The effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist nabilone on L-DOPA induced dyskinesia in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Movement Disorders 1998;13(Suppl 2):29.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Beckmann Y, Seçil Y, Güngör B, Yiğit T. Tardive Dystonia and the Use of Cannabis. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 2010;21(1):90-91.

Dronabinol

·        Beckmann Y, Seçil Y, Güngör B, Yiğit T. Tardive Dystonia and the Use of Cannabis. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 2010;21(1):90-91.

 

Schluckauf (Singultus)

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Gilson I, Busalacchi M. Marijuana for intractable hiccups. Lancet 1998; 351(9098): 267.

 

Tourette-Syndrom, Tics

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Müller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Koblenz A, Jobges M, Kolbe H, Daldrup T, Emrich HM. Treatment of Tourette's syndrome with Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): a randomized crossover trial. Pharmacopsychiatry  2002;35(2):57-61.

·        Müller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Prevedel H, Theloe K, Kolbe H, Daldrup T, Emrich HM. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2003;64(4):459-65. 

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Müller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Kolbe H, Emrich HM. Treatment of Tourette-Syndrome with delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. American Journal of Psychiatry 1999;156:495.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol

·        Deutsch SI, Rosse RB, Connor JM, Burket JA, Murphy ME, Fox FJ. Current status of cannabis treatment of multiple sclerosis with an illustrative case presentation of a patient with MS, complex vocal tics, paroxysmal dystonia, and marijuana dependence treated with dronabinol. CNS Spectr 2008;13(5):393-403.

·        Müller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Emrich HM. Combined treatment of Tourette syndrome with delta-9-THC and dopamine receptor agonists. J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(3-4):145-54.

·        Hasan A, Rothenberger A, Münchau A, Wobrock T, Falkai P, Roessner V. Oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory gilles de la tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2010;30(2):190-2.

·        Brunnauer A, Segmiller FM, Volkamer T, Laux G, Müller N, Dehning S. Cannabinoids improve driving ability in a Tourette's patient. Psychiatry Res, 9. Juni 2011 [im Druck]

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Müller-Vahl KR, Kolbe H, Schneider U, Emrich HM. Cannabinoids: Possible role in pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette-syndrome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1998;97:1-5.

·        Sandyk R, Awerbuch G. Marijuana and Tourette's Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1988;8:444-445.

·        Hemming M, Yellowlees PM. Effective treatment of Tourette's syndrome with marijuana. J Psychopharmacol 1993; 7: 389-91.

 

Hyperkinetische Bewegungsstörung

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol

·        Farooq MU, Ducommun E, Goudreau J. Treatment of a hyperkinetic movement disorder during pregnancy with dronabinol. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2009;15(3):249-51.

 

Aufmerksamkeits-/Hyperaktivitätsstörung

Unkontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Aharonovich E, Garawi F, Bisaga A, Brooks D, Raby WN, Rubin E, Nunes EV, Levin FR. Concurrent cannabis use during treatment for comorbid ADHD and cocaine dependence: effects on outcome. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2006;32(4):629-35.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol

·        Strohbeck-Kuehner P, Skopp G, Mattern R. [Fitness to drive in spite (because) of THC] [Article in German]. Arch Kriminol 2007;220(1-2):11-9.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Strohbeck-Kuehner P, Skopp G, Mattern R. [Fitness to drive in spite (because) of THC] [Article in German]. Arch Kriminol 2007;220(1-2):11-9.

·        O'Connell TJ, Bou-Matar CB. Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001-2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of  4117 applicants. Harm Reduct J 2007;4:16.

 

Zwangsstörungen

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol, Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Schindler F, Anghelescu I, Regen F, Jockers-Scherubl M. Improvement in refractory obsessive compulsive disorder with dronabinol. Am J Psychiatry 2008;165(4):536-7.

 

Trichotillomanie

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Chamberlain SR, Kim SW. Dronabinol, a cannabinoid agonist, reduces hair pulling in trichotillomania: a pilot study. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 19. Mai 2011 [im Druck]

 

Morbus Parkinson

Kontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

o   Carroll CB, Bain PG, Teare L, Liu X, Joint C, Wroath C, Parkin SG, Fox P, Wright  D, Hobart J, Zajicek JP. Cannabis for dyskinesia in Parkinson disease: a randomized double-blind crossover study. Neurology 2004;63(7):1245-50.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (geraucht)

o   Frankel JP, Hughes A, Lees AJ, Stern GM. Marijuana for Parkinsonian tremor. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1990;53:436.

 

Chorea Huntington

Kontrollierte Studien

Cannabidiol

o   Consroe P, Laguna J, Allender J, Snider S, Stern L, Sandyk R, Kennedy K, Schram K. Controlled clincal trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 1991;40(3):701-8.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Nabilon

v  Müller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Emrich HM. Nabilone deteriorates choreatic movements in Huntington`s disease. Movement Disorders 1999b;14:1038-40.

 

Traumatische Hirnschädigung 

Kontrollierte Studien

Dexanabinol

o   Maas AI, Murray G, Henney H 3rd, Kassem N, Legrand V, Mangelus M, Muizelaar JP, Stocchetti N, Knoller N; Pharmos TBI investigators. Efficacy and safety of dexanabinol in severe traumatic brain injury: results of a phase III randomised, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Lancet Neurol 2006;5(1):38-45.

 

Tinnitus

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol/Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Raby WN, Modica PA, Wolintz RJ, Murtaugh K. Dronabinol reduces signs and symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a case report. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2006;22(1):68-75.

 

Juckreiz

Unkontrollierte Studien

Creme mit Endocannabinoiden

·        Szepietowski JC, Szepietowski T, Reich A. Efficacy and tolerance of the cream containing structured physiological lipids with endocannabinoids in the treatment of uremic pruritus: a preliminary study. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2005;13(2):97-103.

·        Ständer S, Reinhardt HW, Luger TA. [Topical cannabinoid agonists: An effective new possibility for treating chronic pruritus.] [Article in German]. Hautarzt 2006;57(9):801-7.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol

·        Neff GW, O'Brien CB, Reddy KR, Bergasa NV, Regev A, Molina E, Amaro R, Rodriguez  MJ, Chase V, Jeffers L, Schiff E. Preliminary observation with dronabinol in patients with intractable pruritus secondary to cholestatic liver disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97(8):2117-9.

 

Nachtschweiß

Unkontrollierte Studien

Nabilon

·        Maida V. Nabilone for the treatment of paraneoplastic night sweats: a report of four cases. J Palliat Med 2008;11(6):929-34.

 

Epilepsie

Kontrollierte Studien

Cannabidiol

·        Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel C, Gagliardi R, Sanvito WL, Lander N, Mechoulam R. Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology 1980;21(3):175-85.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Consroe PF, Wood GC, Buchsbaum H. Anticonvulsant nature of marihuana smoking. JAMA 1975;234(3):306-7.

Cannabidiol

o   Ames FR, Cridland S.: Anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol [letter]. South African Medical Journal 1986;69:14.

o   Trembly B, Sherman M. Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant. Conference on Cannabis and Cannabinoids, Kolympari/Crete, July 1990, cited according to: Consroe P, Sandyk R. Potential role of cannabinoids for therapy of neurological disorders. In: Murphy L, Bartke A, eds. Marijuana/Cannabinoids, Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press 1992, 459-524. [Kommentar: Kein Effekt von Cannabidiol (300 mg/Tag) bei 10 Patienten.]

·        Trembly B, Sherman M. Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant. Conference on Cannabis and Cannabinoids, Kolympari/Crete, July 1990, cited according to: Consroe P, Sandyk R. Potential role of cannabinoids for therapy of neurological disorders. In: Murphy L, Bartke A, eds. Marijuana/Cannabinoids, Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press 1992, 459-524. [Kommentar: Reduzierung der Anfallhäufigkeit mit Cannabidiol (900 - 1200 mg/Tag) bei einem Patienten.]

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Corral VL. Differential effects of medical marijuana based on strain and route of administration: A three-year observational study. J Cannabis Ther 2001;1(3-4):43-59.

·        Mortati K, Dworetzky B, Devinsky O. Marijuana: an effective antiepileptic treatment in partial epilepsy? A case report and review of the literature. Rev Neurol Dis 2007;4(2):103-6.

 

Isaacs-Syndrom

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol

·        Meyniel C, Ollivier Y, Hamidou M, Péréon Y, Derkinderen P. Dramatic improvement of refractory Isaacs' syndrome after treatment with dronabinol. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2011;113(4):323-4.

 

Augeninnendrucksenkung - Glaukom

Kontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Crawford WJ, Merritt JC. Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacololgy and Biopharmacy 1979;17(5):191-196.

·        Merritt JC, Crawford WJ, Alexander PC, Anduze AL, Gelbart SS. Effect of marihuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma. Ophthalmology 1980;87(3):222-8. 

Dronabinol

·        Tomida I, Azuara-Blanco A, House H, Flint M, Pertwee RG, Robson PJ. Effect of sublingual application of cannabinoids on intraocular pressure: a pilot study. J Glaucoma 2006;15(5):349-353.

Cannabidiol

o   Tomida I, Azuara-Blanco A, House H, Flint M, Pertwee RG, Robson PJ. Effect of sublingual application of cannabinoids on intraocular pressure: a pilot study. J Glaucoma 2006;15(5):349-353.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Hepler RS, Frank IM, Petrus R. Ocular effects of marijuana smoking. In: Braude MC, Szara S, eds. The pharmacology of marihuana. Raven Press: New York: 1976;815-828.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Russo EB, Mathre ML, Byrne A, Velin R, Bach PJ, Sanchez-Ramos J, et al. Chronic cannabis use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An examination of benefits and adverse effects of legal clinical cannabis. J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(1):3-57.

 

Topische Applikation

Dronabinol

o   Merritt JC, Perry DD, Russell DN, Jones BF. Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma. Journal of Clinical Pharmacololgy 1981;21(8-9 Suppl):467S-471S.

 

Augeninnendrucksenkung - Gesunde

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Cooler P, Gregg JM. Effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on intraocular pressure in humans. Southern Medical Journal 1977;70(8):951-954.

·        Jones RT, Benowitz N, Herning RI. The clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1981;21:143S-152S.

o   Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Kemel S, Krepart G, Marks V, Schipper H, Thomson G, Weinerman B, Weinerman R. Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications. J Clin Pharmacol 1981;21(8-9 Suppl):103S-109S.

 Delta-9-THC, Delta-8-THC, 11-OH-THC, CBD, CBN

·        Perez-Reyes M, Wagner D, Wall ME. Davis KH. Intravenous administration of cannabinoids and intraocular pressure. In: Braude MC, Szara S, ed. Pharmacology of marihuana. New York: Raven Press, 1976;829-832.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Plange N, Arend KO, Kaup M, Doehmen B, Adams H, Hendricks S, Cordes A, Huth J, Sponsel WE, Remky A. Dronabinol and retinal hemodynamics in humans. Am J Ophthalmol 2007;143(1):173-4.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Hepler RS, Frank IM. Marihuana smoking and intraocular pressure. Journal of the American Medical Association 1971;217:1392.

·        Flom MC, Adams AJ, Jones RT. Marijuana smoking and reduced intraocular pressure in human eye: Drug action or epiphenomenon? Investigative Ophthalmology 1975;14:52-55.

·        Hepler R S, Frank I M, Petrus R. Ocular effects of marijuana smoking. In: Braude MC, Szara S, eds. The pharmacology of marihuana. New York: Raven Press, 1976;815-828.

 

Nachtsichtigkeit

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Russo EB, Merzouki A, Molero Mesa J, Frey KA, Bach PJ. Cannabis improves night vision: A pilot study of dark adaptometry and scotopic sensitivity in kif smokers of the Rif Mountains of Northern Morocco. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;93(1):99-104.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Russo EB, Merzouki A, Molero Mesa J, Frey KA, Bach PJ. Cannabis improves night vision: A pilot study of dark adaptometry and scotopic sensitivity in kif smokers of the Rif Mountains of Northern Morocco. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;93(1):99-104.  

  

Asthma

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Tashkin DP, Reiss S, Shapiro BJ, Calvarese B, Olsen JL, Lodge JW. Bronchial effects of aerosolized delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy and asthmatic subjects. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1977;115(1):57-65.

·        Williams SJ, Hartley JP, Graham JD. Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients. Thorax 1976;31(6):720-723.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Lee YE, Harper CE. Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1975;112(3):377-386.

·        Vachon L, Mikus P, Morrissey W, FitzGerald M, Gaensler E. Bronchial effect of marihuana smoke in asthma. In: Braude MC, Szara S, eds. The pharmacology of marihuana. Raven Press: New York: 1976;777-784.

Nabilon

o   Gong H Jr, Tashkin DP, Calvarese B. Comparison of bronchial effects of nabilone and terbutaline in healthy and asthmatic subjects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1983;23(4):127-133

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Frank IM. Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects. American Review for Respiratory Diseases. 1974 Apr;109(4):420-8.

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Frank IM. Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects. American Review for Respiratory Diseases 1974 Apr;109(4):420-8.

 

Bronchienerweiterung - Gesunde

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Gong H Jr, Tashkin DP, Simmons MS, Calvarese B, Shapiro BJ. Acute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1984;35(1):26-32.

·        Tashkin DP, Reiss S, Shapiro BJ, Calvarese B, Olsen JL, Lodge JW. Bronchial effects of aerosolized delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy and asthmatic subjects. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1977;115(1):57-65.

Nabilon

·        Gong H Jr, Tashkin DP, Calvarese B. Comparison of bronchial effects of nabilone and terbutaline in healthy and asthmatic subjects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1983;23(4):127-133.

 

COPD (Chronisch-obstructive Lungenerkrankung)

Kontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (oral, sublingual)

·        Pickering EE, Semple SJ, Nazir MS, Murphy K, Snow TM, Cummin AR, Moosavi S, Guz A, Holdcroft A. Cannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety. Chron Respir Dis 2011;8(2):109-18.

 

Blutdruck/Bluthochdruck

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Vandrey R, Umbricht A, Strain EC. Increased Blood Pressure Following Abrupt Cessation of Daily Cannabis Use. J Addict Med 2011;5(1):16-20.

 

Krebs

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Guzmán M, Duarte MJ, Blázquez C, Ravina J, Rosa MC, Galve-Roperh I, Sánchez C, Velasco G, González-Feria L. A pilot clinical study of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Br J Cancer 2006;95(2):197-203.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Liang C, McClean MD, Marsit C, Christensen B, Peters E, Nelson HH, Kelsey KT. A population-based case-control study of marijuana use and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa) 2009;2(8):759-68.

·        Foroughi M, Hendson G, Sargent MA, Steinbok P. Spontaneous regression of septum pellucidum/forniceal pilocytic astrocytomas-possible role of Cannabis inhalation. Childs Nerv Syst 2011;27(4):671-9.

 

Alzheimer-Krankheit

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Volicer L, Stelly M, Morris J, McLaughlin J, Volicer BJ. Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 1997;12:913-919.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Patel S, Shua-Haim JR, Pass M. Safety and efficacy of dronabinol in the treatment of agitation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with anorexia: A retrospective chart review. Abstract, 11th International Conference of the IPA, 17-22 August 2003, Chicago.

·        Ross JS, Shua-Haim JR. Open-label study of dronabinol in the treatment of refractory agitation in Alzheimer’s disease: a pilot study. Abstract, ASCP's 34th Annual Meeting, 12-15 November 2003, San Antonio, USA.

·        Walther S, Mahlberg R, Eichmann U, Kunz D. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for nighttime agitation in severe dementia. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2006;185(4):524-8.

Nabilon

·        Passmore MJ. The cannabinoid receptor agonist nabilone for the treatment of dementia-related agitation. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2008;23(1):116-7.

 

Nervenschutz

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Jacobus J, McQueeny T, Bava S, Schweinsburg BC, Frank LR, Yang TT, Tapert SF. White matter integrity in adolescents with histories of marijuana use and binge drinking. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2009;31(6):349-55.

 

Schizophrene Psychose

Kontrollierte Studien

Cannabidiol

·        Leweke FM, Koethe D, Gerth CW, Nolden BM, Schreiber D, Hänsel A, Neatby MA, Juelicher A, Hellmich M, Klosterkötter J. Cannabidiol as an antipsychotic. A double-blind, controlled clinical trial on cannabidiol vs. amisulpride in acute schizophrenia. IACM 3rd Conference on Cannabinoids in Medicine, 9-10 September 2005, Leiden, International Association for Cannabis as Medicine.

o   Zuardi AW, Hallak JE, Dursun SM, Morais SL, Faria Sanches R, Musty RE, Crippa JA. Cannabidiol monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. J Psychopharmacol 2006;20(5):683-6.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Cannabidiol

·        Zuardi AW, Morais SL, Guimarães FS, Mechoulam R. Antipsychotic effect of cannabidiol. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1995;56:485-486.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol

·        Schwarcz G, Karajgi B, McCarthy R. Synthetic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) can improve the symptoms of schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2009;29(3):255-8.

·        Schwarcz G, Karajgi B. Improvement in refractory psychosis with dronabinol: four case reports. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71(11):1552-3.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Schwarcz G, Karajgi B, McCarthy R. Synthetic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) can improve the symptoms of schizophrenia. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2009;29(3):255-8.

·        Schwarcz G, Karajgi B. Improvement in refractory psychosis with dronabinol: four case reports. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71(11):1552-3.

 

Manisch-depressive Psychose

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB. The use of cannabis as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder: anecdotal evidence and the need for clinical research. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1998;30(2):171-7.

o   El-Mallakh RS, Brown C. The effect of extreme marijuana use on the long-term course of bipolar I illness: a single case study. J Psychoactive Drugs 2007;39(2):201-2.

·        Ringen PA, Vaskinn A, Sundet K, Engh JA, Jónsdóttir H, Simonsen C, Friis S, Opjordsmoen S, Melle I, Andreassen OA. Opposite relationships between cannabis use and neurocognitive functioning in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Psychol Med 2010;40(8):1337-47.

 

Depressionen

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Regelson W, Butler JR, Schulz J, Kirk T, Peek L, Green ML, Zalis MO. Delta-9-tetrahydro­cannabi­nol as an effective antidepressant and appetite-stimulating agent in ad­vanced cancer pa­tients. In: Braude MC, Szara S, editors. Pharmacology of mari­hu­ana. Vol 2. New York: Ra­ven Press, 1976. p. 763-776.

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Ware MA, Adams H, Guy GW. The medicinal use of cannabis in the UK: results of a nationwide survey. Int J Clin Pract 2005;59(3):291-5.

 

Angst

Kontrollierte Studien

Cannabidiol

·        Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, de Oliveira DC, De Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, Quevedo J, Roesler R, Schröder N, Nardi AE, Martín-Santos R, Hallak JE, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA. Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients. Neuropsychopharmacology, 9. Februar 2011 [im Druck]

·        Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, Wichert-Ana L, Duran FL, Martin-Santos R, Simões MV, Bhattacharyya S, Fusar-Poli P, Atakan Z, Santos Filho A, Freitas-Ferrari MC, McGuire PK, Zuardi AW, Busatto GF, Hallak JE. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. J Psychopharmacol 2011;25(1):121-30.

 

Posttraumatische Stressstörung

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Villagonzalo KA, Dodd S, Ng F, Mihaly S, Langbein A, Berk M. The relationship between substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder in a methadone maintenance treatment program. Compr Psychiatry 2011;52(5):562-6.

·        Cornelius JR, Kirisci L, Reynolds M, Clark DB, Hayes J, Tarter R. PTSD contributes to teen and young adult cannabis use disorders. Addict Behav 2010;35(2):91-4.

·        Reznik I. Medical cannabis use in post-traumatic stress disorder: a naturalistic observational study. Abstract presented at the Cannabinoid Conference 2011, 8-10 September, Bonn, Germany.

 

Alkoholabhängigkeit

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Mikuriya TH. Cannabis substitution. An adjunctive therapeutic tool in the treatment of alcoholism. Medical Times 1970;98(4):187-91. 

·        Mikuriya TH. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol: a harm-reduction approach. J Cannabis Ther 2004;4(1):79-93.

·        Reiman A. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs Harm Reduct J 2009;6:35.

 

Opiatabhängigkeit

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

o   Hermann D, Klages E, Welzel H, Mann K, Croissant B. Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms. Addict Biol 2005;10(2):165-9.

·        O'Connell TJ, Bou-Matar CB. Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001-2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of  4117 applicants. Harm Reduct J 2007;4:16.

 

Unkontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Raby WN, Carpenter KM, Rothenberg J, Brooks AC, Jiang H, Sullivan M, Bisaga A, Comer S, Nunes EV Intermittent marijuana use is associated with improved retention in naltrexone treatment for opiate-dependence. Am J Addict 2009;18(4):301-8.

 

Kokain-/Crackabhängigkeit

Unkontrollierte Studien

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Aharonovich E, Garawi F, Bisaga A, Brooks D, Raby WN, Rubin E, Nunes EV, Levin FR. Concurrent cannabis use during treatment for comorbid ADHD and cocaine dependence: effects on outcome. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2006;32(4):629-35.

·        Labigalini E Jr, Rodrigues LR, Da Silveira DX. Therapeutic use of cannabis by crack addicts in Brazil. J Psychoactive Drugs 1999;31(4):451-5.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Dreher M. Crack heads and roots daughters: The therapeutic use of cannabis in Jamaica. J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(3-4):121-33.

 

Cannabisabhängigkeit

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol

·        Haney M, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Nasser J, Bennett A, Zubaran C, Foltin RW. Marijuana withdrawal in humans: effects of oral THC or divalproex. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004;29(1):158-70.

 

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Dronabinol

·        Levin FR, Kleber HD. Use of dronabinol for cannabis dependence: two case reports and review. Am J Addict 2008;17(2):161-4.

 

Schlaf

Kontrollierte Studien

Dronabinol, Cannabidiol

·        Nicholson AN, Turner C, Stone BM, Robson PJ. Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2004;24(3):305-13.

 

Verschiedene Erkrankungen

Fallberichte, Umfragen

Cannabis (geraucht)

·        Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB. Marihuana, the forbidden medicine. Rev. and exp. ed. New Haven: Yale University Press; 1997.

·        Randall RC, O'Leary AM. Marijuana Rx: The patients' fight for medicinal pot. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press; 1998.

·        Corral VL. Differential effects of medical marijuana based on strain and route of administration: A three-year observational study. J Cannabis Ther 2001;1(3-4):43-59.

·        Grotenhermen F, Schnelle M. Survey on the medical use of cannabis and THC in Germany. J Cannabis Ther 2003;3(2):17-40.

·        Gieringer D. Medical use of cannabis: Experience in California. In: Grotenhermen F, Russo E, editors. Cannabis and cannabinoids: Pharmacology, toxicology, and therapeutic potential. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press; 2001. p. 153-70.

·        Ware MA, Adams H, Guy GW. The medicinal use of cannabis in the UK: results of a nationwide survey. Int J Clin Pract 2005;59(3):291-5.

·        Russo EB, Mathre ML, Byrne A, Velin R, Bach PJ, Sanchez-Ramos J, et al. Chronic cannabis use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An examination of benefits and adverse effects of legal clinical cannabis. J Cannabis Ther 2002;2(1):3-57.

·        O'Connell TJ, Bou-Matar CB. Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001-2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of  4117 applicants. Harm Reduct J 2007;4:16.

·        Bottorff JL, Johnson JL, Moffat BM, Mulvogue T. Relief oriented use of marijuana by teens. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2009;4(1):7.