Studies and Case Reports


You will find scientific information on many studies in the Database on Clinical Studies and Case Reports

 

·         Improvement of symptoms or positive evaluation by authors

o        No relevant change of symptoms or negative evaluation by authors

v     Deterioration of symptoms

 

 

Nausea and Vomiting - Chemotherapy

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol (THC)

·         Artim R, DiBella N. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) plus prochlorperazine (PCZ) for refractory nausea and vomiting (N/V). Proceedings of the American Society for Clinical Oncology 1983;2:84.

·         Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetics in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. Annals of Internal Medicine 1979;91:819-824.

o        Chang AE, Shiling DJ, Stillman RC, Goldberg NH, Seipp CA, Barofsky I, Rosenberg SA.. A prospective evaluation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in patients receiving adriamycin and cytoxan chemotherapy. Cancer 1981; 47: 1746-1751.

·         Colls BM, Ferry DG, Gray AJ, Harvey VJ, McQueen EG. The antiemetic activity of tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. New Zealand Medical Journal 1980;91:449-451.

·         Ekert H, Waters KD, Jurk KH, Mobilia J, Loughnan P. Ameriloration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Medical Journal of Australia 1979;2:657-659.

·         Frytak S, Moertel CG, O'Fallon JR, Rubin J, Creagan ET, O'Connnell MJ. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetics for patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. A comparison with prochlorperazine and a placebo. Annals of Internal Medicine 1979;91:825-830.

·         Gralla RJ, Tyson LB, Bordin LA, Clark RA, Kelsen DP, Kris MG. Antiemetic therapy: a review of recent studies and a report of a random assignment trial comparing metoclopramide with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Cancer Treatment Report 1984;68:163-172.

·         Kluin-Nelemans JC, Nelemans FA, Meuwissen OJATh, Maes RAA. D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an antiemetic in patients treated with cancer chemotherapy; a double-blind cross-over trial against placebo. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 1979;21:338-340.

·         Lane M, Vogel CL, Ferguson J, Krasnow S, Saiers JL, Hamm J. Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1991;6:352-359.

·         Levitt M, Faiman C, Hawks R, Wilson A. Randomized double blind comparison of delta-9-tetrahydroicannabinol (THC) and marijuana as chemotherapy antiemetics. Proceedings of the American Society for Clinical Oncology 1984;3:91.

·         Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Faiman C, Kemel S, Krepart G. Dose vs response of tetrahydroannabinol (THC) vs prochlorperazine as chemotherapy antiemetics. Proceedings of the American Society for Clinical Oncology 1981;22:422.

·         McCabe M, Smith FP, Goldberg D, Macdonald J, Woolley PV, Warren R. Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy. Investigational New Drugs 1988;6:243-246.

·         Neidhart JA, Gagen MM, Wilson HE, Young DC. Comparative trial of the antiemetic effects of THC and haloperidol. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 1981; 21: 38-42S.

·         Orr LE, McKernan JF, Bloome B. Antiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol. Compared with placebo and prochlorperazine in chemotherapy-associated nausea and emesis. Archives of Internal Medicine 1980;140:1431-433.

·         Sallan SE, Cronin C, Zelen M, Zinberg NE. Antiemetics in patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer. A randomized comparison of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and prochlorperazine. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;302:135-138.

·         Sallan SE, Zinberg NE, Frei E. Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. New England Journal of Medicine 1975;293:795-797.

·         Ungerleider JT, Andrysiak T, Fairbanks L, Goodnight J, Sarna G, Jamison K. Cannabis and cancer chemotherapy. A comparison of oral delta-9-THC and prochlorperazine. Cancer 1982;50:636-645.

·         Ungerleider JT, Sarna G, Fairbanks LA, Goodnight J, Andrysiak T, Jamison K. THC or compazine for the cancer chemotherapy patient---the UCLA study. Part II: patient drug preference. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 1985; 8: 142-147.

Cannabis

·         Levitt M, Faiman C, Hawks R, Wilson A. Randomized double blind comparison of delta-9-tetrahydroicannabinol (THC) and marijuana as chemotherapy antiemetics. Proceedings of the American Society for Clinical Oncology 1984;3:91.

Nabilone

·         Ahmedzai S, Carlyle DL, Clader IT, Moran F. Anti-emetic efficacy and toxicity of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in lung cancer chemotherapy. British Journal of Cancer 1983;48:657-663.

·         Chan HS, Correia JA, MacLeod SM. Nabilone versus prochlorperazine for control of cancer chemotherapy-induced emesis in children: a double-blind, crossover trial. Pediatrics 1987; 79: 946-952

·         Crawford SM, Buckman R. Nabilone and metoclopramide in the treatment of nausea and vomiting due to cisplatinum: a double blind study. Medical Oncology and Tumor Pharmacotherapy 1986; 3: 39-42.

·         Cunningham D, Bradley CJ, Forrest GJ, Hutcheon AW, Adams L, Sneddon M, et al. A randomized trial of oral nabilone and prochlorperazine compared to intravenous metoclopramide and dexamethasone in the treatment of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy regimens containing cisplatin or cisplatin analogues. European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology 1988; 24: 685-689.

·         Dalzell AM, Bartlett H, Lilleyman JS. Nabilone: An alternative antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1986;61:502-505.

·         Einhorn LH, Nagy C, Furnas B, Williams SD. Nabilone: an effective antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1981 Aug-Sep;21(8-9 Suppl):64S-69S.

·         George M, Pejovic MH, Thuaire M, Kramar A, Wolff JP. Randomized comparative trial of a new anti-emetic: nabilone, in cancer patients treated with cisplatin. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy1983; 37: 24-27.

·         Herman TS, Einhorn LH, Jones SE, Nagy C, Chester AB, Dean JC, et al. Superiority of nabilone over prochlorperazine as an antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. New England Journal of Medicine 1979; 300: 1295-1297.

·         Johansson R, Kilkku P, Groenroos M. A double-blind, controlled trial of nabilone vs prochlorperazine for refractory emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Treatment Reviews 1982; 9: 25-33.

·         Jones SE, Durant JR, Greco FA, Robertone A. A multi-institutional phase III study of nabilone vs placebo in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Cancer Treatment Reviews 1982; 9: 45-48

·         Levitt M. Nabilone vs placebo in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patients. Cancer Treatment Reviews 1982; 9(suppl B): 49-53.

·         Nagy CM, Furnas BE, Einhorn LH, Bond WH. Nabilone: antiemetic crossover study in cancer chemoptherapy patients. Proceedings of the American Society for Cancer Research 1978;19:30.

·         Niederle N, Schutte J, Schmidt CG. Crossover comparison of the antiemetic efficacy of nabilone and alizapride in patients with nonseminomatous testicular cancer receiving cisplatin therapy. Klinische Wochenschrift 1986; 64: 362-365.

·         Niiranen Aila, Mattson K. A cross-over comparison of nabilone and prochlorperazine for emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 1985;8:336-340.

·         Pomeroy M, Fennelly JJ, Towers M. Prospective randomized double-blind trial of nabilone versus domperidone in the treatment of cytotoxic-induced emesis. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 1986;17:285-288.

·         Priestman SG, Priestman TJ, Canney PA. A double-blind randomised cross-over comparison of nabilone and metoclopramide in the control of radiation-induced nausea. Clinical Radiology 1987; 38: 543-544.

·         Steele N, Gralla RJ, Braun Jr DW, Young CW. Double-blind comparison of the antiemetic effects of nabilone and prochlorperazine on chemotherapy-induced emesis. Cancer Treatment Report 1980; 64: 219-224.

·         Wada JK, Bogdon DL, Gunnell JC, Hum GJ, Gota CH, Rieth TE. Double-blind, randomized, crossover trial of nabilone vs. placebo in cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Treatment Reviews 1982; 9(Suppl B): 39-44

Levonantradol

·         Citron ML, Herman TS, Vreeland F, Krasnow SH, Fossieck BE, Jr. Antiemetic efficacy of levonantradol compared to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Cancer Treatment Reports 1985;69:109-112.

·         Higi M, Niederle N, Bremer K, Schmitt G, Schmidt CG, Seeber S. Levonantradol bei der Behandlung von zytostatika-bedingter Übelkeit und Erbrechen. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 1982; 107: 1232-1234.

·         Hutcheon AW, Palmer JB, Soukop M, Cunningham D, McArdle C, Welsh J, et al. A randomised multicentre single blind comparison of a cannabinoid anti-emetic (levonantradol) with ychlorpromazine in patients receiving their first cytotoxic chemotherapy. European Journal for Cancer and Clinical Oncology 1983; 19: 1087-1090

·         Stambaugh Jr JE, McAdams J, Vreeland F. Dose ranging evaluation of the antiemetic efficacy and toxicity of intramuscular levonantradol in cancer subjects with chemotherapy-induced emesis. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research1984; 24: 480-485

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Delta-8-THC

·         Abrahamov A, Abrahamov A, Mechoulam R. An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology. Life Sciences 1995;56:2097-2102.

Cannabis

·         Vinciguerra V, Moore T, Brennan E. Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy. New York State Journal of Medicine 1988;88:525-527.

 

Experimental Studies on Healthy Subjects

·         Soderpalm AH, Schuster A, de Wit H. Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior  2001;69(3-4):343-50.

 

Surveys among Doctors

·         Doblin RE, Kleiman MA. Marijuana as antiemetic medicine: a survey of oncologists' experiences and attitudes. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 1991; 9: 1314-1319.

o        Schwartz RH, Voth EA, Sheridan MJ. Marijuana to prevent nausea and vomiting in cancer patients: a survey of clinical oncologists. South Medical Journal 1997;90(2):167-72.

 

 

Nausea and Vomiting – Other Causes

Controlled Studies

Levonantradol

Radiotherapy

·         Lucraft HH, Palmer MK. Randomised clinical trial of levonantradol and chlorpromazine in the prevention of radiotherapy-induced vomiting. Clinical Radiology 1982; 33: 621-622.

Nabilone

Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

·         Lewis IH, Campbell DN, Barrowcliffe MP. Effect of nabilone on nausea and vomiting after total abdominal hysterectomy. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1994; 73: 244-246

 

Case Report

Radiotherapy

·         Gonzalez-Rosales F, Walsh D. Intractable nausea and vomiting due to gastrointestinal mucosal metastases relieved by tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol). Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1997;14(5):311-314.

 

Spasticity

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol (THC)

Multiple Sclerosis

o        Killestein J, Hoogervorst EL, Reif M, Kalkers NF, Van Loenen AC, Staats PG, Gorter RW, Uitdehaag BM, Polman CH. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of orally administered cannabinoids in MS. Neurology 2002;58(9):1404-7.

·         Petro DJ, Ellenberger C. Treatment of human spasticity with D9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1981;(Suppl 21):413S-416S.

·         Ungerleider JT, Andyrsiak T, Fairbanks L, Ellison GW, Myers LW. D9-THC in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis. Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse 1987;7:39-50.

Spinal cord injury

·         Hanigan WC, Destree R, Truong XT. The effect of D9-THC on human spasticity. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1986;39:198.

·         Maurer M, Henn V, Dittrich A, Hofmann A. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1990;240:1-4.

Nabilone

·         Martyn CN, Illis LS, Thom J. Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Lancet 1995;345:579.

Cannabis

·         Vaney C. A clinical study with a standardized cannabis extract in multiple sclerosis. Paper presented at 2001 Conference of the International Association for Cannabis as Medicine in Berlin, October 26-27, 2001.

·         Wade DT, Robson P, House H, Makela P, Aram J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clinical Rehabilition 2003;17:18-26.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol (THC)

·         Brenneisen R, Egli A, Elsohly MA, Henn V, Spiess Y. The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1996;34:446-452.

·         Kogel RW, Johnson PB, Chintam R, Robinson CJ, Nemchausky BA. Treatment of spasticity in spinal cord injury with dronabinol, a tetrahydrocannabinol derivative. American Journal of Therapeutics 1995;2(10):799-805.

Cannabis

·         Meinck HM, Schönle PWA, Conrad B. Effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology 1989;236:120-122.

v     Greenberg HS, Werness SAS, Pugh JE, Andrus RO, Anderson DJ, Domino EF. Short-term effects of smoking marijuana on balance in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal volunteers. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1994;55:324-328.

 

Surveys, Case Reports

·         Consroe P, Musty R, Rein J, Tillery W, Pertwee R. The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis. European Neurology 1997;38:44-48.

·         Consroe P, Tillery W, Rein J, Musty RE. Reported Marijuana effects in patients with spinal cord injury. 1998 Symposium on the Cannabinoids. Burlington: International Cannabinoid Research Society, 1998, p. 64.

·         Dunn M, Davis R. The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males. Paraplegia 1974;12:175.

·         Malec J, Harvey RF, Cayner JJ. Cannabis effect on spasticity in spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1982;63:116-118.

·         Petro DJ. Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity. Psychosomatics 1980;21:81-85.

·         Randall RC, ed. Muscle Spasm, Pain & Marijuana Therapy. Washington, DC: Galen Press, 1991.

 

 

Bladder Dysfunction

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol (THC)

·         Hagenbach U, Ghafoor N, Brenneisen R, Luz S, Mäder M. Clinical investigation of D-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as an alternative therapy for  overactive bladders in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients? 2001 Congress on Cannabis and the Cannabinoids, Cologne, Germany: International Association for Cannabis as Medicine, p. 10.

Cannabis

·         Brady CM, DasGupta R, Wiseman OJ, Berkley KJ, Fowler CJ. Acute and chronic effects of cannabis based medicinal extract on refractory lower urinary tract dysfunction in patients with advanced multiple sclerosis – early results. 2001 Congress on Cannabis and the Cannabinoids, Cologne, Germany: International Association for Cannabis as Medicine, p. 9.

 

 

Tremor

Controlled Study

Dronabinol

·         Clifford DB. Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis. Annals of Neurology 1983;13:669-671.

 

 

Dystonia

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabidiol

·         Snider SR, Consroe P. Treatment of Meige's syndrome with cannabidiol. Neurology 1984;34(Suppl):147.

·         Sandyk R, Snider SR, Consroe P, Elias SM. Cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders. Psychiatry Research 1986;18:291.

·         Consroe P, Sandyk R, Snider SR. Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders. International Journal of Neuroscience 1986;30:277-282.

Nabilone

o        Fox SH, Kellett M, Moore AP, Crossman AR, Brotchie JM. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the potential of cannabinoid receptor stimulation in the treatment of dystonia. Movement Disorders 2002;17(1):145-149.

 

 

Tourette's Syndrome

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol

·         Müller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Koblenz A, Jobges M, Kolbe H, Daldrup T, Emrich HM. Treatment of Tourette's syndrome with Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): a randomized crossover trial. Pharmacopsychiatry  2002;35(2):57-61.

·         Müller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Prevedel H, Theloe K, Kolbe H, Daldrup T, Emrich HM. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2003;64(4):459-65. 

 

Uncontrolled Study

Dronabinol

·         Müller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Kolbe H, Emrich HM. Treatment of Tourette-Syndrome with delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol. American Journal of Psychiatry 1999;156:495.

 

Survey, Case Reports

·         Müller-Vahl KR, Kolbe H, Schneider U, Emrich HM. Cannabinoids: Possible role in pathophysiology of Gilles de la Tourette-syndrome. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1998;97:1-5.

·         Sandyk R, Awerbuch G. Marijuana and Tourette's Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1988;8:444-445.

 

Parkinson's Disease

Uncontrolled Study

Cannabis

o        Frankel JP, Hughes A, Lees AJ, Stern GM. Marijuana for Parkinsonian tremor. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 1990;53:436.

 

L-Dopa Induced Dyskinesia

Controlled Study

Nabilone

·         Sieradzan KA, Fox SH, Dick J, Brotchie JM. The effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist nabilone on L-DOPA induced dyskinesia in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Movement Disorders 1998;13(Suppl 2):29.

 

Huntington's Disease

Controlled Study

Cannabidiol

o        Consroe P, Laguna J, Allender J, Snider S, Stern L, Sandyk R, Kennedy K, Schram K. Controlled clincal trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 1991;40(3):701-8..

Uncontrolled Study

Nabilone

v     Müller-Vahl KR, Schneider U, Emrich HM. Nabilone deteriorates choreatic movements in Huntington`s disease. Movement Disorders 1999b;14:1038-40.

 

Pain

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol (THC)

·         Brenneisen R, Egli A, Elsohly MA, Henn V, Spiess Y. The effect of orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity: a pilot study with 2 patients. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1996;34:446-452.

·         Maurer M, Henn V, Dittrich A, Hofmann A. Delta-9-THC shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double blind trial. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1990;240:1-4.

·         Noyes R, Brunk SF, Baram DA, Canter A. Analgesic effects of delta-9-THC. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1975;15:139-143.

·         Noyes R, Brunk ST, Avery DH, Canter A. The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and codeine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1975;18:84-89.

o        Raft D, Gregg J, Ghia J, Harris L. Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain: psychological correlates of the analgesic response. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1977;21:26-33.

Cannabis

·         Holdcroft A, Smith M, Jacklin A, Hodgson H, Smith B, Newton M, Evans F. Pain relief with oral cannabinoids in familial Mediterranean fever. Anaesthesia 1997;52:483-488.

·         Wade DT, Robson P, House H, Makela P, Aram J. A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Clinical Rehabilitation 2003;17:18-26.

Levonantradol

·         Jain AK, Ryan JR, McMahon FG, Smith G. Evaluation of intramuscular levonantradol and placebo in acute postoperative pain. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1981;21(suppl 8-9):S320-S326.

·         Kantor TG, Hopper M. A study of levonantradol, a cannabinol derivative, for analgesia in post operative pain. Pain 1981; (suppl): S37.

Benzopyranoperidine

·         Jochimsen PR, Lawton RL, VerSteeg K, Noyes Jr R. Effect of benzopyranoperidine, a delta-9-THC congener, on pain. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1978;24:223-7.

NIB

·         Staquet M, Gantt C, Machin D. Effect of a nitrogen analog of tetrahydrocannabinol on cancer pain. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1978;23:397-401.

Cannabidiol

o        Lindstrom P, Lindblom U, Boreus L. Lack of effect of cannabidiol in sustained neuropathia. Paper presented at '87 International Conference on Cannabis, Melbourne, September 2-4, 1987. Cited from: Consroe P, Sandyk R. Potential role of cannabinoids for therapy of neurological disorders. In: Murphy L, Bartke A, eds. Marijuana/Cannabinoids. Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 1992:459-524.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol (THC)

·         Finnegan-Ling D, Musty RE. Marinol and phantom limb pain; a case study. In: 1994 Symposium on the Cannabinoids. Burlington, Vermont: International Cannabinoid Research Society, p. 53.

·         Butler JR  Peek LA  Regelson W  Moore MM  Lubin LA. Treatment effects of delta-9-THC in an advanced cancer population. In: Cohen S, Stillman RC, eds. The therapeutic potential of marihuana. Plenum Medical Book, New York 1976.

 

Clinical Observations, Case Reports, Surveys

·         Dunn M, Davis R. The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injured males. Paraplegia 1974;12:175.

·         Noyes R, Baram DA. Cannabis analgesia. Comprehensive Psychiatry 1974:15:531-535.

·         Consroe P, Musty R, Rein J, Tillery W, Pertwee R. The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis. European Neurology 1997;38:44-48.

·         Petro DJ. Marihuana as a therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity. Psychosomatics 1980;21:81-85.

·         Elsner F, Radbruch L, Sabatowski R. Tetrahydrocannabinol zur Therapie chronischer Schmerzen Tetrahydrocannabinol for treatment of chronic pain. Schmerz 2001;15(3):200-4.

 

 

Appetite Enhancement

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol (THC)

Cancer

·         Jatoi A, Windschitl HE, Loprinzi CL, Sloan JA, Dakhil SR, Mailliard JA, Pundaleeka S, Kardinal CG, Fitch TR, Krook JE, Novotny PJ, Christensen B. Dronabinol versus megestrol acetate versus combination therapy for cancer-associated anorexia: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group study. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2002;20(2):567-573.

·         Regelson W, Butler JR, Schulz J, Kirk T, Peek L, Green ML, Zalis MO. Tetrahydrocannbinol as an effective antidepressant and appetite-stimulating agent in advanced cancer patients. In: Braude MC, Szara S, eds. The pharmacology of marihuana. Raven Press: New York: 1976;763-776.

·         Wadleigh R, Spaulding GM, Lumbersky B, Zimmer M, Shepard K, Plasse T. Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients. Proc Am Soc Oncology 1990; 9: 331.

HIV/AIDS

·         Beal JE, Olson R, Laubenstein L, Morales JP, Bellman P, Yangco B, Lefkowitz L, Plasse TF, Shepard KV. Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1995;10(2):89-97.

·         Timpone JG, Wright DJ, Li N, Egorin MJ, Enama ME, Mayers J, Galetto G, and the DATRI 004 Study Group. The safety and pharmacokinetics of single-agent and combination therapy with megestrol acetate and dronabinol for the treatment of HIV wasting syndrome. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 1997;13:305-315.

Alzheimer's Disease

·         Volicer L, Stelly M, Morris J, McLaughlin J, Volicer BJ. Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 1997;12:913-919.

Anorexia nervosa

o       Gross H, Ebert MH, Faden VB, Goldberg SC, Kaye WH, Caine ED, Hawks R, Zinberg N. A double-blind trial of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in primary anorexia nervosa. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1983;3(3):165-171.

Cannabis

Healthy Subjects

·         Foltin RW, Fishman MW, Brady JV. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 1986;25:577-582.

·         Foltin RW, Fischman MW, Byrne MF. Effects of smoked marijuana on food intake and body weight of humans living in a residential laboratory. Appetite 1988;11(1):1-14.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol (THC)

Cancer

·         Plasse TF, Gorter RW, Krasnow SH, Lane M, Shepard KV, Wadleigh RG. Recent clinical experience with dronabinol. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 1991;40:695-700.

·         Nelson K, Walsh D, Deeter P, Sheehan F. A phase II study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for appetite stimulation in cancer-associated anorexia. Journal of Palliative Care 1994;10:14-18.

HIV/AIDS

·         Gorter R, Seefried M, Volberding P. Dronabinol effects on weight in patients with HIV infection. AIDS 1992;6:127.

·         Plasse TF, Gorter RW, Krasnow SH, Lane M, Shepard KV, Wadleigh RG. Recent clinical experience with dronabinol. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 1991;40:695-700.

·         Plasse T, Conant M, Gorter R, Shepard KV. Dronabinol stimulates appetite and causes weight gain in HIV patients. International Conference on AIDS 1992;8(3):122 (abstract no. PuB 7442).

·         Struwe M, Kaempfer SH, Geiger CJ, Pavia AT, Plasse TF, Shepard KV, Ries K, Evans TG. Effect of dronabinol on nutritional status in HIV infection. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 1993;27:827-831.

·         Beal JE, Olson R, Lefkowitz L, Laubenstein L, Bellman P, Yangco B, Morales JO, Murphy R, Powderly W, Plasse TF, Mosdell KW, Shepard KV. Long-term efficacy and safety of dronabinol for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated anorexia. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 1997;14(1):7-14.

 

Epilepsy

Controlled Study

Cannabidiol

·         Cunha JM, Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel C, Gagliardi R, Sanvito WL, Lander N, Mechoulam R. Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology 1980;21(3):175-85.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis

·         Consroe PF, Wood GC, Buchsbaum H. Anticonvulsant nature of marihuana smoking. JAMA 1975;234(3):306-7.

Cannabidiol

o        Ames FR, Cridland S.: Anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol [letter]. South African Medical Journal 1986;69:14.

o        Trembly B, Sherman M. Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant. Conference on Cannabis and Cannabinoids, Kolympari/Crete, July 1990, cited according to: Consroe P, Sandyk R. Potential role of cannabinoids for therapy of neurological disorders. In: Murphy L, Bartke A, eds. Marijuana/Cannabinoids, Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press 1992, 459-524.

Comment: No effect of cannabidiol (300 mg/day) in 10 patients.

·         Trembly B, Sherman M. Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant. Conference on Cannabis and Cannabinoids, Kolympari/Crete, July 1990, cited according to: Consroe P, Sandyk R. Potential role of cannabinoids for therapy of neurological disorders. In: Murphy L, Bartke A, eds. Marijuana/Cannabinoids, Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. Boca Raton: CRC Press 1992, 459-524.

Comment: Recution of seizures with cannabidiol (900-1200 mg/day) in 1 patient.

 

Glaucoma

Controlled Study

Cannabis

·         Crawford WJ, Merritt JC. Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocular hypertension. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacololgy and Biopharmacy 1979;17(5):191-196.

·         Merritt JC, Crawford WJ, Alexander PC, Anduze AL, Gelbart SS. Effect of marihuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma. Ophthalmology 1980;87(3):222-8. 

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis

·         Hepler RS, Frank IM, Petrus R. Ocular effects of marijuana smoking. In: Braude MC, Szara S, eds. The pharmacology of marihuana. Raven Press: New York: 1976;815-828.

 

Topical Application

Dronabinol

o        Merritt JC, Perry DD, Russell DN, Jones BF. Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma. Journal of Clinical Pharmacololgy 1981;21(8-9 Suppl):467S-471S.

 

 

Decrease of Intraocular Pressure – Healthy Subjects

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol (THC)

·         Cooler P, Gregg JM. Effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on intraocular pressure in humans. Southern Medical Journal 1977;70(8):951-954.

·         Jones RT, Benowitz N, Herning RI. The clinical relevance of cannabis tolerance and dependence. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1981;21:143S-152S.

o        Levitt M, Wilson A, Bowman D, Kemel S, Krepart G, Marks V, Schipper H, Thomson G, Weinerman B, Weinerman R. Physiologic observations in a controlled clinical trial of the antiemetic effectiveness of 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemotherapy. Ophthalmologic implications. J Clin Pharmacol 1981;21(8-9 Suppl):103S-109S.

 

Delta-9-THC, Delta-8-THC, 11-OH-THC, CBD, CBN

·         Perez-Reyes M, Wagner D, Wall ME. Davis KH. Intravenous administration of cannabinoids and intraocular pressure. In: Braude MC, Szara S, ed. Pharmacology of marihuana. New York: Raven Press, 1976;829-832.

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Cannabis

·         Hepler RS, Frank IM. Marihuana smoking and intraocular pressure. Journal of the American Medical Association 1971;217:1392.

·         Flom MC, Adams AJ, Jones RT. Marijuana smoking and reduced intraocular pressure in human eye: Drug action or epiphenomenon? Investigative Ophthalmology 1975;14:52-55.

·         Hepler R S, Frank I M, Petrus R. Ocular effects of marijuana smoking. In: Braude MC, Szara S, eds. The pharmacology of marihuana. New York: Raven Press, 1976;815-828.

 

 

Asthma

Controlled Studies

Dronabinol (THC)

Healthy Subjects

·         Gong H Jr, Tashkin DP, Simmons MS, Calvarese B, Shapiro BJ. Acute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1984;35(1):26-32.

·         Tashkin DP, Reiss S, Shapiro BJ, Calvarese B, Olsen JL, Lodge JW. Bronchial effects of aerosolized delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy and asthmatic subjects. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1977;115(1):57-65.

Patients with Asthma

·         Tashkin DP, Reiss S, Shapiro BJ, Calvarese B, Olsen JL, Lodge JW. Bronchial effects of aerosolized delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy and asthmatic subjects. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1977;115(1):57-65.

·         Williams SJ, Hartley JP, Graham JD. Bronchodilator effect of delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol administered by aerosol of asthmatic patients. Thorax 1976;31(6):720-723.

Cannabis

Patients with Asthma

·         Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Lee YE, Harper CE. Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1975;112(3):377-386.

·         Vachon L, Mikus P, Morrissey W, FitzGerald M, Gaensler E. Bronchial effect of marihuana smoke in asthma. In: Braude MC, Szara S, eds. The pharmacology of marihuana. Raven Press: New York: 1976;777-784.

Nabilone

Healthy Subjects

·         Gong H Jr, Tashkin DP, Calvarese B. Comparison of bronchial effects of nabilone and terbutaline in healthy and asthmatic subjects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1983;23(4):127-133.

Patients with Asthma

o        Gong H Jr, Tashkin DP, Calvarese B. Comparison of bronchial effects of nabilone and terbutaline in healthy and asthmatic subjects. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1983;23(4):127-133

 

Uncontrolled Studies

Dronabinol (THC)

Patients with Asthma

·         Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Frank IM. Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects. American Review for Respiratory Diseases. 1974 Apr;109(4):420-8.

Cannabis

Patients with Asthma

·         Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Frank IM. Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects. American Review for Respiratory Diseases 1974 Apr;109(4):420-8.

 

 

Psychiatric Illnesses

Alzheimer's Disease

Dronabinol, Controlled Study

·         Volicer L, Stelly M, Morris J, McLaughlin J, Volicer BJ. Effects of dronabinol on anorexia and disturbed behavior in patients with Alzheimer's disease. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 1997;12:913-919.

 

Psychosis

Cannabidiol, uncontrolled study

·         Zuardi AW, Morais SL, Guimarães FS, Mechoulam R. Antipsychotic effect of cannabidiol. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1995;56:485-486.

 

Dependency from Alcohol

Cannabis, Case Report

·         Mikuriya TH. Cannabis substitution. An adjunctive therapeutic tool in the treatment of alcoholism. Medical Times 1970;98(4):187-91. 

 

Bipolar Disorder

Cannabis, Case Reports

·         Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB. The use of cannabis as a mood stabilizer in bipolar disorder: anecdotal evidence and the need for clinical research. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1998;30(2):171-7.