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IACM-Bulletin of 04 February 2018

Science/Human: Cannabis use is not associated with negative effects on respiration

Cannabis use is not associated with increased risks of respiratory diseases. This is the conclusion of an analysis of 2304 participants, of whom 49% never used cannabis, 43% were former users and 8% were current cannabis users. Results by researchers of the Colorado School of Public Health, USA, were published in the journal Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases.

Neither current nor former cannabis use was associated with increased odds of wheeze, cough or chronic bronchitis when compared to never users. Current and former cannabis users had less emphysema and better forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%). However, heavy cannabis use was associated with more chronic bronchitis symptoms.

Morris MA, Jacobson SR, Kinney GL, et al. Marijuana use associations with pulmonary symptoms and function in tobacco smokers enrolled in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS). Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis. 2018;5(1):46-56.

Science/Human: Exercise increases levels of endocannabinoids in the blood

Aerobic exercise (running on a treadmill) increases mood and blood levels of endocannabinoids. This is the result of a study with 12 adults with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 12 healthy people by researchers of the University of Wisconsin in Madison and the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, USA. Participants ran on a treadmill for 30 minutes at a moderate intensity.

Circulating concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA, arachidonoylethanolamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) significantly increased. This effect was stronger in healthy adults compared to the patient group. Authors concluded that “the endocannabinoid system was activated in adults with and without PTSD, although effect sizes suggest that adults with PTSD may have a blunted endocannabinoid response to exercise.”

Crombie KM, Brellenthin AG, Hillard CJ, Koltyn KF. Psychobiological Responses to Aerobic Exercise in Individuals With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. J Trauma Stress. 2018 Feb 1. [in press]

News in brief

USA: Vermont legalises cannabis for recreational use
Vermont is officially the ninth state of the USA to legalize cannabis, and the first to end cannabis prohibition through an act of lawmakers. The previous law changes, which ended cannabis prohibition in eight states, were based ballot initiatives. Under the new law, people over 21 years of age will be allowed to legally possess up to one ounce (about 28 g) of cannabis and grow as many as two mature and four immature cannabis plants.
Forbes of 22 January 2018

France: A report commissioned by the government suggests decriminalisation of all drugs
Two assembly members were commissioned by the government through the National Assembly Laws Commission to study France’s drug policies, and recommend changes that could alleviate strain on the country’s criminal justice system. Unusually, despite authoring the report together, the two members of parliament diverged on their recommendations for legislative reform; thus, they settled on suggesting the government choose between two options for responding to personal drug possession.
Talking Drugs of 22 January 2018

Science/Human: There is insufficient evidence for effects of cannabis use on the risk for stroke and heart attacks
Authors of a review of studies, which examined effects of cannabis use on heart and circulation concluded that “evidence examining the effect of marijuana on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes, including stroke and myocardial infarction, is insufficient.”
The Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education, Scranton, USA.
Ravi D, et al. Ann Intern Med. 2018 Jan 23. [in press]

Science/Human: Cannabis use has no relevant effect on fertility
In a study with 4194 women (1125 couples) cannabis used by men and women and had no significant effect on fertility.
Boston University School of Public Health, USA.
Wise LA, et al. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017 Dec 22. [in press]

Science/Human: The use of cannabis reduces cannabis use
The administration of the cannabis extract Sativex and behavioural treatment reduced cannabis use in 40 cannabis-dependent people. Participants received up to about 110 mg of THC in the extract or placebo for 12 weeks.
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.
Trigo JM, et al. PLoS One. 2018;13(1):e0190768.

Science/Animal: Activation of the CB1 receptor increased the antidepressant effects of magnesium and zinc
A study with mice low doses of oleamide increased the antidepressant effects of magnesium and zinc. Authors wrote that they produced “at least additive” effects.
Medical University of Lublin, Poland.
Wośko S, et al. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2018 Jan 30. [in press]

Science/Animal: Cannabinoid -induced dilation of blood vessels does not only depend on the activation of cannabis receptors
Research reveals that dilation of blood vessels by cannabinoids does not only depend on the activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors on the endothelium, the inner lining of blood vessels, but is also involves other mechanisms.
Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology NAS of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine.
Bondarenko AI, et al. Vascul Pharmacol. 2018 Jan 17. [in press]

Science/Human: Caloric restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes reduces endocannabinoid levels
In a study with 27 obese patients suffering from type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease caloric restriction to 1000 kcal per day for 16 weeks blood levels of endocannabinoids including that of anandamide, but not of 2-AG, were decreased.
Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands.
van Eyk HJ, et al. Nutr Diabetes. 2018;8(1):6.

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