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IACM-Bulletin of 09 February 2014

Science/Human: Link between alcohol use, but not cannabis use, and domestic violence

Alcohol use, but not cannabis use increases the risk of violence between partners, according to studies done at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, USA. The two studies among college students found that men (n=67) under the influence of alcohol are more likely to perpetrate physical, psychological or sexual aggression against their partners but not men under the influence of cannabis. Women (n=173), on the other hand, were more likely to be physically and psychologically aggressive under the influence of alcohol but, unlike men, they were also more likely to be psychologically aggressive under the influence of cannabis.

The studies are among the first to investigate the timing of alcohol and cannabis use and intimate partner violence in college students. The two studies included male and female college students who were at least 18 years old, had been a relationship for at least a month that involved two days a week of face-to-face contact, and had consumed alcohol in the previous month. The subjects completed an online diary once a day for 90 days.

Research finds link between alcohol use, not pot, and domestic violence

Shorey RC, Stuart GL, Moore TM, McNulty JK. The Temporal Relationship Between Alcohol, Marijuana, Angry Affect, and Dating Violence Perpetration: A Daily Diary Study With Female College Students. Psychol Addict Behav. 2013 Nov 25. [in press]

Shorey RC, Stuart GL, McNulty JK, Moore TM. Acute alcohol use temporally increases the odds of male perpetrated dating violence: a 90-day diary analysis. Addict Behav 2014;39(1):365-8.

News in brief

Uruguay: President nominated for Nobel Peace Prize
José Mujica’s name has been submitted for the prestigious Nobel Peace Prize this year by several groups, including members of his leftwing political party, the Frente Amplio, as well as the Schildower Kreis, a German nongovernmental organization, and the Drugs Peace Institute, a Dutch NGO. Mujica’s supporters cited the Uruguayan President’s pioneering policy of legalizing the government-controlled production and sale of cannabis to registered users as the main reason for his nomination.
Huffington Post of 5 February 2014

USA: Citizens of Florida will decide on the legalisation of medical cannabis
Florida's Supreme Court approved an initiative to put medical cannabis legalization on the ballot in November. The ballot petition surpassed the 683,000 signatures required to get on the ballot, meaning the measure has cleared all legal hurdles.
Reuters of 27 January 2014

Germany: Cannabis Activist Georg Wurth Wins a Million EURos
Cannabis activist George Wurth of the German HEMP Association (Deutscher Hanf Verband) has won a million-Euro prize to expand the group's legalization activism from the German television program Millionaire Choice (Millionaerswahl). Millionaire Choice was a reality TV program where self-selected contestants competed in a multi-stage process of elimination to see whose idea will be funded. The campaign was determined by the vote of viewers.
Stopthedrugwar.org of 26 January 2014

USA: First medical cannabis dispensaries in Massachusetts
Massachusetts has licensed 20 dispensaries to start growing and selling cannabis for medical use, the Department of Health said. Massachusetts is among 20 states in the country that have passed laws allowing people to use cannabis as a medical treatment. Most of those states, like Massachusetts, are still setting up distribution networks.
Reuters of 31 January 2014

Science/Human: THC can evoke different classes of effects
In research with 217 subjects, who participated in 10 different studies, three different classes of THC effects emerged: perception, relaxation, and dysphoria. Not surprisingly, the item feeling high was found to be the best predictor for the effect of THC. Three separate clusters that describe the spectrum of subjective effects of THC were identified using different statistical methods, consisting "time", "thoughts" and "high" ("perception"), "drowsy", "muzzy", "mentally slow" and "dreamy" ("relaxation") and "voices", "meaning" and "suspicious" ("dysphoria").
Centre for Human Drug Research, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Kleinloog D, et al. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2014 Feb 5. [in press]

Science/Cells: Why CB1 receptor activation causes bronchodilation
Activation of CB1-receptors appears to mediate the inhibition of contraction caused by acetylcholine in the human airways. Authors wrote that “this feature may explain the acute bronchodilation produced by marijuana smoking.”
Laboratoire de Pharmacologie Respiratoire UPRES EA220, Hôpital Foch, Suresnes, France.
Grassin-Delyle S, et al. Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Jan 28. [in press]

Science/Animal: The analgesic effects of crotalphine are partly mediated by CB2 receptors
Crotalphine is an antinociceptive peptide from rattle snakes that, despite its opioid-like activity, does not induce some of the characteristic side effects of opioids. New research with rats demonstrates that crotalphine effects involve peripheral CB2 receptor activation.
Laboratório Especial de Dor e Sinalização, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.
Machado FC,et al. Br J Pharmacol 2014;171(4):961-72.

Science/Cells: The number of CB2 receptors is increased in certain joint cells in rheumatoid arthritis
In certain joint cells (fibroblast-like synoviocytes) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis the number of CB2 receptors is increased. Proinflammatory mediators up-regulate the number of CB2 receptors, which in turn reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Authors conclude that these “data suggest that CB2R may be a potential therapeutic target of RA.”
Department of Rheumatology, Guanghua Hospital, Shanghai, China.
Gui H, et al. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Jan 17. [in press]

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